Home | Colleges | Contact Us|
|Home > Tamil Nadu > Degree > Cheyyar > Arignar Anna Government Arts College|
Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar, Tamil Nadu
Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar, Tamil Nadu
Cheyyar (District Tiruvannamalai)
Tamil Nadu, IndiaPin Code : 604407
Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar Tamil Nadu is a recognised institute / college.
Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar Tamil Nadu is situated in Cheyyar of Tamil Nadu state (Province) in India. This data has been provided by www.punjabcolleges.com. Fax # of Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar Tamil Nadu is +91-4182-222286.
Website of Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar Tamil Nadu is http://www.govt-artscollege-cheyyar.com/.
Contact Details of Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar Tamil Nadu are : +91-4182-225313
CoursesB.A, B.Sc, B.Com, M.A, M.Com
Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar Tamil Nadu runs course(s) in Arts and Science stream(s).
Arignar Anna Government Arts College is affiliated with Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore
Profile of Arignar Anna Government Arts CollegeArignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar, was started in the year 1967 to satisfy the popular demand for a centre of higher education, to help the school-leaving youngsters of Cheyyar and the neighboring taluks to pursue higher studies at low cost, in consonance with the aim of free India ie. to disseminate Higher Education to rural India. The College is located on a 69 acre land, two kilometer away from Cheyyar town. This institution is affiliated to the Thiruvalluvar University and it is one of the well known Government Colleges in Northern Tamil Nadu. From the time of its inception, Arignar Anna Government Arts College was affiliated to Madras University. With the creation of Thiruvalluvar University in the year 2002, the college stands affiliated to Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore.
Media coverage of Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu
NAAC report of Arignar Anna Government Arts CollegeSection - I: INTRODUCTION
Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar was started in 1967 to help School leaving young boys and girls of Cheyyar and the neighboring Taluks. From this humble beginning, the institution has grown to the level of offering UG and PG Courses. Presently, the College is offering 9 UG courses in the areas of History, Economics, Tamil Literature, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Computer Science and Commerce and five P.G. Programmes in the subjects of History, Economics, English, Commerce and Mathematics.
The College was established with the efforts of a former North Arcot District Collector Shri.P.M.Belliappa, I.A.S., Shri.P.Ramachandran, then former M.L.A. of Cheyyar and the Deputy Speaker of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Shri.Pulavar Govindan.
The College is located mainly in a rural area to serve the needs of the under privileged in the Thiruvannamalai District. The College is affiliated to Thiruvalluvar University set up recently. This is the only Grade-I Government Arts College in the entire Thiruvalluvar University area.
The mission of the College is indicated by its logo which means â€˜Possession of Wisdomâ€™ and the college has set its goal as spreading knowledge among the rural youth of the area at a low cost. The College is set to cater to the children of the poor families dominated mainly by agriculturists and weavers of the area. The specific objectives intended to be achieved by the college are as follows:
To impart quality higher education, adapting to the changing global environment, and helping self-support among the socially backward, economically poor and downtrodden sections of society.
b. To impart value based education so as to inculcate a sense of social responsibility, patriotism and awareness to become dutiful citizens of our nation.
c. To promote technical skills and knowledge to meet the ever growing challenges and to impart competency to young people.
d. To find out the talent potential and encourage the young to pursue useful research for the development of society and the nation.
Since inception, the college has produced about 20,000 graduates. It has a student strength of around 2000 at present. The College is recognized under section 2 (f) and 12 (b) by the UGC and receives grants therefrom. The College is located on a land of 31.36 hectares acres, two kilometers away from the town of Cheyyar. In addition to nine Under Graduate programmes, the College also offers 5 P.G. programmes and 2 part-time Ph.D. programmes. The College was accredited by NAAC for the first time in the year 2000 with 3 stars (***) on a 65-70 points score. At inception, the College was affiliated to Madras University and with the creation of Thiruvalluvar University in 2002, it now stands affiliated to Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore.
Being a Government College, it follows the reservation policy of the Government of Tamil Nadu and admits more than 90% of the students belonging to socially and economically under privileged sections of the society. The fee collected from the students is also as per the norms prescribed by the Govt. which is very low, compared to the fee structure followed by private colleges. With the above background, the college is striving to achieve its objectives and fulfil its declared mission.
On completion of the period of 5 years after the first accreditation by NAAC in the year 2000, the Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College has volunteered to be re-assessed by the NAAC and submitted the Re-accreditation Report in May, 2006. The NAAC constituted the PEER TEAM with Mrs. Padma Ramachandran, I.A.S. (Chair Person), formerly Chief Secretary to the Govt. of Kerala & Ex. Vice-Chancellor, M.S. University of Baroda, Prof. K.V.Rao (Member Co-ordinator), Registrar, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh and Prof. Bharati Naik (Member), Former Principal & Director, Shri. M.D.Shah Mahila College of Arts & Commerce, Mumbai, Maharashtra. The Team visited the college for 3 days from 21st to 23rd December 2006. The Peer Team carefully perused and analyzed the Re-accreditation Report submitted by the College during the institutional visit. The Team went through all the relevant documents, papers, and visited all the departments and facilities of the college. The Peer Team also interacted with the members of the College Council, the Principal, Faculty members, Non-teaching staff, students, parents and alumni of the college. The Regional Joint Director of Education, Vellore, representing the Government side, interacted with the Peer Team. Based on the above exercise and keeping in mind the criteria identified by NAAC for the process of re-accreditation, the Peer Team is pleased to give its objective re-assessment of the college in the following paragraphs.
Section -II : Criterion-wise Analysis
Criterion - I : Curricular Aspects
The College has a mission to provide quality higher education at a low cost to the rural students drawn mainly from the weaker sections of the area. At the beginning, i.e., 1967, the college offered only Pre-University courses. Later, in its 2nd year of inception it started four degree courses in Arts, Commerce and Science streams. The College at present is offering 9 UG Courses in the subjects of History, Economics, Tamil Literature, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Computer Science and Commerce.
The College also offers 5 PG Programmes in History, Economics, Commerce, English and Mathematics. The College states that it has put up proposals to the Affiliating University for starting new UG Courses several times during the past. However, the college was not sanctioned any new course by the University, during the past five years.
The College follows the syllabi prescribed by the University. Value based education was introduced as part of the second year English syllabus. The revision and modifications of the syllabi are done at the University level. The participation of the teaching staff of the college in this exercise is limited. Teachers belonging to History and English departments are members of the Board of Studies, constituted by the University. The UG and PG programmes of the college are run on an annual model. There is no semester system in practice applicable to any course offered by the college. The UG Courses are taught in English and Tamil medium. The Government of Tamil Nadu has a scheme of granting Rs 400 per student for choosing Tamil as the medium of instruction and examination.
The College follows the Academic Calendar prescribed by the University and it has functioned for 183 days during the Academic Year 2005-06. The College has applied for autonomous status to the UGC in 1997. The UGC Teem visited the college during 2000, but the result is not known yet.
At the initiative of the Govt. of Tamil Nadu, the college has introduced the â€˜Computer Literacy Programmeâ€™ for non-computer students. The course is designed to provide computer training of about 150 hours in a year to a student.
Criterion - II : Teaching, Learning & Evaluation
The College offers nine UG Courses and five PG Courses with a student strength of around 2000. It follows a transparent admission process and the process is fully computerized. The selection of candidates is purely based on merit and follows the rules of reservation as in force framed by the Government of Tamil Nadu. The Demand Index (i.e., seats available to applications received) is high for UG Courses in the disciplines of Commerce, Computer Science, Chemistry, Zoology, Physics and Mathematics.
The College has 32 permanent teachers and another 42 teachers, as Guest Faculty. Of the 32 permanent teachers, 12 teachers are with Ph.D. and 20 with M.Phil. Among the Guest Faculty, 2 have with Ph.D. and 16, M.Phil. i.e. 100% among permanent teachers and 43% among Guest Faculty have research qualifications. The Teachers are recruited by the Tamil Nadu Recruitment Board as per the qualifications prescribed by UGC. The teachers draw UGC scales of pay and service conditions are comparable to any other Govt. service.
The College is run on an annual model and the Academic Calendar is prepared accordingly. As per the Calendar, the college works for 183 days in a year. The academic functioning of the college is monitored by the Principal assisted by the Heads of Departments. The system provides a close watch of the conduct of classes, completion of syllabi, conduct of periodical tests and maintenance of discipline.
An opportunity is provided to the teachers of the college for their academic development. Teachers are under FIP scheme sanctioned by the UGC. A few teachers belonging to Chemistry, Zoology, Tamil, English and History have attended refresher and orientation courses conducted by Academic Staff Colleges and University departments. A limited number of teachers from Maths, Zoology, English and Chemistry have attended seminars and conferences. The College follows mainly the traditional lecture method of teaching. Based on the nature of subject, some teachers use modern teaching aids like LCD and Slide Projectors. Teaching Aids such as OHP, Audio-Video equipment, transparencies are also used by some departments. Internet facility is made available to the students from out of the grant sanctioned by UGC.
The chief method of evaluating the performance of the students is through the annual exam conducted by the University. However, the teachers conduct periodical tests to evaluate the performance of students on a continuous basis. A University Model exam is conducted at the end of the teaching schedule. It is noteworthy that the college has adopted a â€˜Tutorial Ward Systemâ€™, whereby each teacher is entrusted with a batch of 30 to 40 students for monitoring and counselling students. The parents are periodically intimated of the attendance and academic progress of their wards. The success rate of the students is above 80 percent in case of Tamil, English, Commerce and Botany subjects. It is to be noted that one student of 3rd BA Tamil got a Gold Medal from the University during 2002-03. One student from PG History obtained first rank in 2005. The drop out rate is high in UG Economics(15%).
Remedial classes are conducted by the English Department of the College. The UGC had allotted a sum of Rs. 8000/- for this purpose in 2003 - 04. Around 500 students are said to have been benefitted by this programme Subsequently, no fund was made available.
The History Department of the College has organized a One-Day workshop during 2004. The system of feedback from students was introduced by the College from 2004-05. There is no mechanism created by the college for advanced learners. The college needs to encourage meritorious students to undertake field trips, Project work and participation in Seminars/Conferences and competitions outside the college.
Criterion - III : Research, Consultancy and Extension
The College has 32 permanent and 42 part-time teachers. Of the total of 74 teachers, 12 have Ph.D., the highest academic qualification and 36 have M.Phil. Further, five teachers enjoy the FIP Research Fellowship of the University Grants Commission. Thus 65% of teachers are actively engaged in Research activities. Some of the teachers belonging to History and English Departments are eligible to guide research of various Tamil Nadu State Universities under â€˜Distanceâ€™ mode. Some of the teachers belonging to History, Zoology and Mathematics have published work and also attended Seminars and Conferences to promote research interest in the chosen field. Only a limited number of faculty have publications to their credit. It may also be noted that very few faculty members holding research degrees have published their work. There is a glaring shortage in applications for research projects of the UGC.
There is no formal Consultancy offered to outside agencies by the faculty. However, teachers of the College lend a helping hand voluntarily for the newly established Colleges in erecting laboratories and reinforcing their infrastructure.
The College has four NSS Units with about 400 student volunteers. The NSS Units are encouraged to participate in various kinds of extension activities including blood donation, pollution control and environmental awareness. It is noteworthy that the College has organized a Mega Veterinary Camp, serving a cattle population of about 2850. The College has also organized a three day Medicinal Herbal Exhibition to promote awareness among the people of the area. A seminar was held on renewable energy sources sponsored by the Government of India and the Government of Tamil Nadu.
Criterion -IV: Infrastructure & Learning Resources
The College is located in a large area of 31.36 hectares of land at Kilpuduppakkam Village, 2 KM away from Cheyyar Town on the Dindivanam - Arcot State High Way. The College has two blocks of RCC structure and four blocks of ACC sheds, with a total plinth area of about 10,000 sq.ft. In all, there are 48 class rooms and 7 laboratories. There is one Conference hall with a dimension of 600 sq.ft. with Audio and Video facilities. Each Department is provided with a staff room. Women students are provided with three common rooms. The College has 30.6 hectares of playgrounds for games like Football, Hockey, Cricket, Basketball,Tennis and Badminton.
The buildings and water facilities are maintained by the Public Works Department of Tamil Nadu Government. The College has set up a common Computer facility for students. There is one conference hall with Audio and Video facilities.
The College has a Library with a total collection of about 42,650 books and subscribes to 5 dailies, 9 weeklies, 2 bi-monthlies and 4 monthlies. It also subscribes to 17 subject journals. Computerization of the Library is under process. The College is covered under â€˜Edu-Satâ€™ scheme, whereby the students are intended to be provide with a facility to view the educational programmes through satellite connection. The required equipment is yet to be installed.
Criterion - V: Student Support and Progression:
The College caters to the student population of the local area. They come mainly from social, economic and educationally backward communities. Many of the students are first generation learners. The College follows the rules of reservation as per Government norms.
Students are provided with adequate information about the college, courses and admission process through the Prospectus. The college has also created a website (www.govt_artscollege_cheyyar.com) of its own. A Handbook is supplied to all the students at the beginning of the academic year, which contains information about the college, staff, facilities, scholarships and endowments available. An opportunity is provided to the students to exhibit their latest skills through NSS, and other student activities. The establishment of a â€˜Rural Society for the Advancement of Chemistry (RSAC)â€™ is an innovation of the College.
The College has also created an Employment Guidance Cell, a Quiz Committee and a Women Students Grievance Cell. The Employment Guidance Cell helps students to know about the various job opportunities. The Quiz Committee provides exposure to students on the latest developments and also inculcates competitive spirit among students. The Women Students Grievance Cell is under the guidance of three senior women teachers.
The progression of students to higher studies is about 50 percent. Authentic data on the remaining 50 percent is to be compiled by the college. An effort is made to get feedback and compile placement information about the passing-out students through the Old Students Association. The drop out rate is negligible in most departments, except in Economics. There is a need to probe into the causes for this phenomenon. Students are provided assistance to prepare themselves for competitive exams like UPSC/TNPSC, NET and SLET. The College has formed an Athletic Association and Students have represented the college at University tournaments.
Financial support available to the students from the Government is commendable. About 90 percent of the students receive one or other kind of financial assistance from the Government. During the year 2005-06, 518 students received BC Scholarship, involving a sum of Rs. 31,43,893/-. In addition, certain Endowments have been created by local philanthropists to serve as an incentive among students to exhibit their talents. The College has formed and registered an Alumni Association in April 2006 and there are around 500 members. There is also a Parents - Teachers Association (PTA) to care for the development of the College at the behest of the Government. An amount of Rs 60 is collected from each parent every year and one fourth is sent to the parent body and the remaining is utilized for college development, including payment to Guest Faculty. Utilizing this fund, the College has appointed four teachers under this scheme to work in Botany, Commerce, Mathematics and English.
Criterion - VI : Organization and Management
The College, being a Government institution, follows the structure of organization, prescribed by the Government. The College functions under the overall direction and supervision of the Director of Collegiate Education, Government of Tamil Nadu.
The Principal is the Head of the institution. He maintains good rapport with the staff. The Principal and staff strive for dissemination of quality education to the students of the area. The College Council is the policy making body of the college and consists of all HODs, Physical Educational Director, Librarian, NSS Officer and other senior teachers. The College Council looks after the admissions work, campus discipline, and students association activities. The College Calendar is prepared by a Committee constituted for the purpose.
The teaching staff are recruited by the Tamil Nadu Recruitment Board, according to the norms prescribed by the UGC. Shortfall in the recruitment of teachers is filled with adhoc-appointments, which is also done according to the norms suggested by the Government.
The financial needs of the college are looked after by the Government. Salaries of the teaching and non-teaching staff are met by the Government. As per the budget of the college for 2004-05, the annual income and expenditure are in the range of Rs. 3.06 crores. The College also enjoys UGC financial assistance. It has received a sum of Rs. 10 lakhs during the X plan.
Criterion -VII: Healthy Practices
During the validation process, the Peer Team has noted the following healthy practices of the College.
The very Mission of the college pertaining to providing higher education to the people belonging to the socially and economically backward section of the society is laudable.
In addition the following are noteworthy:-
The Computer Literacy Programme (CLP) undertaken by the college to provide computer training for non-computer students.
Creation and maintenance of website by the college.
Peaceful academic atmosphere maintained by the College.
Publication of College Magazine to bring out the creative skills of students.
Setting up of IQAC as a part of quality drive during 2005.
Conduct of remedial classes for slow-learners.
Conduct of Model Exam for familiarizing the students with University Exam System.
Introduction of the subject of â€˜Environmental Studies in the second year syllabi.
Organization of Medical Checkup for students at the beginning of every academic year.
Intimation of the performance of the wards to parents on a continuous basis.
Blood Donation Awareness Campaigns / Literacy etc are carried out by NSS volunteers
Section -III: Action Taken by the College
This section shows action taken by the College against the observations and recommendations of the first Peer Team in 2000 in ensuring quality education.
At that time, the college was offering nine UG Courses, five PG Courses and two Ph.D. Courses with a student strength of 1775. Now also the college offers the same Programmes and student strength is around 1900. There is no addition of courses.
The college informed the First Peer Team that it has applied for Autonomous Status and the relevant Committee has also visited the college; but this has not materialized.
At time of first accreditation, there were 71 permanent and 21 temporary faculty members; of these 14 have Ph.D. and 54, M.Phil. The present position is that the College has 32 permanent and 42 temporary faculty of which 14 have P.hd. and 38, M.Phil.
The Peer Teem had suggested that the College may think of introducing cost sharing part-time certificate and diploma courses like Child Development, Rehabilitation Science, Fishery Science, Journalism, etc. Ther is no effort in this direction.
Section IV Overall Analysis.
The Peer Team has gone through the earlier Accreditation Report. It has visited all the Departments of the College and seen the various facilities such as the Canteen ( run by a self help group of women) Physical Education infrastructure playgrounds, and Library . In addition, there were discussions with the Principal, the staff(teaching and non teaching) as well the students, alumni, and parents. On the basis of these, we find that there are many things to be applauded. These are shown below as Commendations. These commendations are followed by Recommendations, which we hope will be pursued earnestly and urgently.
The underprivileged youngsters of Cheyyar and around have excellent access to education, thanks to the establishment of a college in the area which has as its mission and motto, service to the poor. Access is not all. Once they enter the portals of the college, students are treated with great empathy by the staff, especially the teachers, through guiding, counselling and sometimes, even with monetary help.
There is a tutorial system also through which a ward can approach his/her designated teacher. For the girls, having a college in this rural area is a great boon - many of them cycle to college and back (There is a separate Ladies Cycle Stand in the College). They are given the facilities of three spacious common rooms where they can meet / sit / socialize, this ensures a â€˜feel - freeâ€™ atmosphere. The college enjoys an ambience where there are no law and order problems, for students here value the opportunity to get education. Many of the parents and alumni echoed appreciation (and a feeling of security in sending their children to the college), for the harmonious environment in this coeducational institution and the all round discipline.
Above all, in spite of the extreme shortage of teachers in all departments, the staff have gone all out to see that the teaching has not suffered. There is a cheerful approach to the many arrangements that have to be made in a situation of dearth of staff in every department.
Again adjustment to the many constraints described below is being done from top to bottom:-
a) There are many courses with â€˜parallelâ€™ medium demanding language skills in English and Tamil in the teacher, also the Shift System for which the existing system has to stretch itself. For choosing the Tamil medium, students are given a monetary incentive, which means that it is tough to make students see the value of English.
b) Further, the College has had to shift affiliation from Madras University to Thiruvalluvar University, recently established.
c) For staff to pursue the attainment of higher qualification. non - availability of local guides and material and above all, lack of time due to shortage of staff and consequent additional duties are challenges. Yet, many teachers have excelled - some in the preparation of teaching material in different modes, or in writing textbooks, some through publishing many papers and some through being good mentors and counsellors to the students.
d) The staff are transferable. (As an example the Principal has joined the College only six months ago). The difficulties consequent on transfer of staff have also to be reckoned with.
The College is to be congratulated for being sanctioned an NCC unit which would hopefully become operational in 2007.
The compulsory computer Literacy Programme(CLP) is most necessary and we note that it is run very well.
The College has no Perspective Plan as of now.
A Perspective Plan may be prepared in consultation with staff members and some important persons in and around Cheyyar. The Plan could be for five years and take into account the new courses to be applied for, whether they should be inter disciplinary, diversifying existing unpopular courses, needed add-on courses, extension work, training programmes for teaching and non teaching staff and so on. Specifically, it should contain plans for compulsory imparting of communication skills in English for all the students (like CLP) so that the latter can seek employment opportunities not only locally but outside of Cheyyar as there are few or no industries here.
As the staff shortage has become acute (especially after the last Accreditation ), urgent steps are required to knock at the appropriate doors to get more staff sanctioned. We note that the PTA has been helping to tide over emergencies, but this cannot be much, nor can it last long.
Because of staff shortage, some departments are not able to ensure good results in examinations. This needs immediate thought and action.
Many of the â€˜guest lecturers, (GL) are â€˜oldâ€™ students of the College. The GLs are filling a crucial gap and many are enthusiastic and dedicated despite the fact that compensation is not proportionate to there qualifications and the services they render. Hoveer existing GLs need to improve their qualifications.
The ideal situation is to have permanent staff .
More of â€˜self learningâ€™ is to be encouraged among students.
It may be considered whether there is scope for â€˜Internshipâ€™ of students at least in a few departments like Commerce and Computer Science. This would be in the nature of an â€˜attachmentâ€™ to a Bank, Weavers Society, an office, etc. At least â€˜Project Workâ€™ which does not involve much finance, may be thought of.
The Reading Room of the Library could be made more spacious by proper rearrangement of existing furniture
A Health Centre with the help of the Alumni Association may be set up and it would be good to arrange an annual check up for all students.
Each Teacher may also draw up an Annual Plan of Action for himself/herself showing quantitative and qualitative goals / objectives and the strategies needed for achieving them. In this may be included the need to fulfil the goals of the College as well as personal goals (e.g. I must send at least two publications to ---- Journal this year, or attend a refresher / orientation course or organize a seminar in the department) etc.
The College may encourage all teachers to set an example to students by training themselves in the following areas :
Familiarity with computers such that on a future date classes can be taken through computers
Communication in English should be excellent. To be noted is the fact that the staff in the Tamil Department speak English fluently.
Self learning must be made a must, the theme being â€˜life long learningâ€™ (LLL),
Many teachers are adopting a few different methodologies for teaching. In order to sustain the interest of the students varied methodologies may be interspersed.
Teachers may also consider becoming members of their (subject) Association e.g. â€˜Economics Assn.â€™ etc. in order to develop contacts and be abreast of developments.
Teachers and students may acquaint themselves with the Constitution of India.
The Principal and staff may bring out a set of Consultancy Rules. In addition to bringing in some money for the College and the staff members working on a Consultancy, it would help to widen the horizon and foster personal growth problem of the faculty member.
In addition to the above, there are two very important general
The large extent of land of 31.36 hectares that the College possesses is to be utilized well. For this, a plan may be drawn up for leasing it out for experimental farming or for kitchen gardens to self help groups, or other similar purpose, It may be ensured that the land would still be in the possession of the College and available whenever the College requires it.
The buildings of the College may be given termite protection.
We in the Peer Team profusely thank the Principal, the members of the College Councile, Students, Parents and Alumni for their excellent co-operation in conducting our visit to the College. We appreciate the assistance rendered by the Staff of the College in the validation process. We hope the College would take necessary steps and initiate action for further progress.
Smt. Padma Ramachandran, I.A.S.
Prof. Bharathi Naik
I have read the report and I agree with the observations made in it.
Some other Colleges in Tamil Nadu
Maharani Arts and Science Womens College, Dharapuram
Dharapuram (District )
Vidhya Mandhir Institute of Technology, Perundurai
Perundurai â€ Chennimalai State Highway, Ingur Post
Perundurai (District Erode)
MEASI Institute of Management, Chennai
87, Peters Road Royapettah
Chennai (District Chennai)
Summary: Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar Tamil Nadu website, mobile, contact address and approval / recognition details.