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University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta), West Bengal



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University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta), West Bengal
Address:Senate House, 87 /1 College Street
Kolkata (Calcutta) (District Kolkata (Calcutta))
West Bengal, India
Pin Code : 700073


University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal is a University recognised by UGC. University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal is also known as Calcutta University.

University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal was established on / in 24 January 1857.


University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal is situated in Kolkata (Calcutta) of West Bengal state (Province) in India. This data has been provided by www.punjabcolleges.com. Kolkata (Calcutta) comes under Kolkata (Calcutta) Tehsil, Kolkata (Calcutta) District.

Fax # of University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal is 033 2241 0071.

email ID(s) is University of Calcutta Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal

Website of University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal is www.caluniv.ac.in/,www.caluniv-ucsta.net.

Chairman : Off.: +91-33-22193761 Res.: +91-33-232143279.
General Secretary : Dr. Amit Ray.
Vice Chancellor : Prof Suranjan Das Telephone: Off.: +91-33-22413288 Res.: +91-33-23582389.

Registrar : Prof Basab Chaudhuri Telephone: .


Contact Details of University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal are : Telephone: +91-33-22410071, 24106741
Other departments of this University:

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION,College of Law,
Department Of Business Management, University College of Science and Technology,
Calcutta University College of Science and Technology
Calcutta University College of Law

Dr D.P. De
Senior Secretary
Institute of Foreign Policy Studies
Alipore Campus, 4th Floor
1, Reformatory Street
Kolkata-700027


Courses

Faculties
* Faculty of Agriculture
* Faculty of Arts
* Faculty of Commerce, Social Welfare & Business Management
* Faculty of Education, Journalism and Library Science
* Faculty of Engineering & Technology
* Faculty of Fine Arts, Music and Home Science
* Faculty of Law
* Faculty of Science

Departments
University of Calcutta has fifty five departments organised into eight faculties — Agriculture; Arts; Commerce, Social Welfare & Business Management; Education, Journalism and Library Science; Engineering & Technology; Fine Arts, Music and Home Science; Law and Science.

The faculty of Agriculture consists of the sole department of Institute of Agricultural Science and offers post graduate courses on agronomy, horticulture, Genetics & Plant Breeding and Seed Science & Technology among others.

The Arts faculty consists of 21 departments offering courses on several Indian (including Sanskrit and Pali) and foreign languages, linguistics, ancient Indian history and culture, Islamic history and culture, South & South east Asian studies and many more.

The departments of business management and commerce are under the faculty of Commerce, Social Welfare & Business Management. Courses on journalism and mass communication, library & information science are offered by the faculty of Education, Journalism and Library Science through three departments.

Faculty of Engineering & Technology includes the departments of applied physics, chemical engineering, chemical technology, computer science and engineering, polymer science and technology, radiophysics and electronics, and computer centre.

Home science is the sole department in the faculty of Fine Arts, Music and Home Science, offering courses on subjects such as food and nutrition, human development, home science.

The faculty of Law comprises only one department of law while the faculty of Science has nineteen departments. The latter faculty offers courses on traditional science subjects like physics, chemistry, botany and also on subjects like biotechnology, microbiology, bioinformatics, marine science etc.

Educational Streams
Calcutta University offers undergraduate, postgraduate as well as PhD programmes. Science and business disciplines offered by the University are in high demand as these fields are expected to have better job opportunities. Most of the programs are organized on an annual basis, though some programs use semester system. Most of the University departments offer masters programmes that are one or two years in duration. Research programmes offered by the University are conducted in specialized institutes as well as individual departments. Admission process in Calcutta University generally starts in the month of July and lasts till August.


Profile of University of Calcutta

Profile
Formally established on the 24 January 1857, the University of Calcutta (also known as Calcutta University), located in the city of Kolkata (previously Calcutta), India, is the first modern university in the Indian subcontinent. It is a state-government administered urban-based affiliating and research university. It has its main campuses in College Street, Rajabazar, Alipore, Hazra, South Sinthi and a host of affiliated colleges in greater Kolkata.

Glorious though it is, the University of Calcutta is not simply a prisoner of its past. Instead of basking in the reflected glory of its early achievements, it is always surging ahead, breaking new grounds and setting high standards. This is amply testified by the conferring of the coveted ‘Five Star’ status by NAAC in 2001, followed by other recognitions from India and abroad. The latest achievement is its recognition as the 'Centre of Excellence' by the University Grants Commission. These are indeed fitting tributes to the ceaseless quest for excellence by the University of Calcutta.

History
History of University of Calcutta
University of Calcutta is the oldest of the modern universities in India.[1] It was founded in 1857 during the administration of Lord Canning (1856–1862), the Governor General of India. Dr Fredrick John, the education secretary to the then British Government in India, first tendered a proposal to the British Government in London for the establishment of a university in Calcutta, along the lines of London University, but at that time the plan failed to obtain the necessary approval. However, a proposal to establish two universities, one in Calcutta and the other in Bombay was later accepted in 1854 and the necessary authority was given. The Calcutta University Act came into force on 24 January 1857 and a 41-member Senate was formed as the policy making body of the university. When the university was first established it had a catchment area covering the area from Lahore to Rangoon (now in Myanmar), and Ceylon — the largest of any Indian university.

The first Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University were Governor General Lord Canning and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Sir James William Colvile, respectively.[2] In 1858, Joddu Nath Bose and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay became the first graduates of the university.[3] On 30 January 1858, the Syndicate of the Calcutta University started functioning.[3] The first meeting of the Senate was held in the Council room of the Calcutta Medical College. A temporary office of the university was started in a few rented rooms in Camac Street. For several years afterwards the meetings of the Senate and Syndicate were held in a room of the Writers building. 244 candidates appeared for the first Entrance Examination of the university, held in March 1857 in the Town Hall of Calcutta. In 1862, a decision was taken by the Senate to construct for the university a building of its own. Accordingly, the historical Senate Hall was constructed at a cost of Rs. 2,52,221/- and inaugurated on 12 March 1873 by holding the convocation of the university.

In 1857 Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia Government College in Kapurthala, Punjab province of British India became one of the first colleges to be affiliated with University of Calcutta. Later many institutions came under its jurisdiction. Kadambini Ganguly and Chandramukhi Basu became the first lady graduates of the country in 1882.[3] The Hon ble Justice Gooroodas Banerjee became the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of University of Calcutta in the year 1890.[2] Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms (1906–1914) and a fifth two-year term (1921–23).

Camps
The university has several campuses spread over the city of Kolkata and its suburbs. The university also has many affiliated colleges spread over the southern West Bengal. The main campus of the university, located on College Street, is spread over a small area of 2.7 acres (much less than a square kilometer).

The main campus is also known as the Asutosh Siksha Prangan, and contains Darbhanga Building, Asutosh Building, Hardinge Building, and the Centenary Building. The Rashbihari Siksha Prangan (also known as University College of Science and Technology or popularly Rajabazar Science College), located on Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, houses several scientific and technological departments, e.g., pure and applied chemistry, pure and applied physics, applied mathematics, psychology, physiology, biophysics and molecular biology, to name a few.

Taraknath Siksha Prangan (also known as University College of Science or Ballygunge Science College) on Ballygunge Circular Road in the southern part of the city houses the departments of agriculture, anthropology, biochemistry, botany, genetics among others.[5] Other campuses are Hazra Road Campus, University Press And Book Depot, Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan, B. T. Road Campus, Viharilal College of Home Science Campus, University Health Service, Haringhata Campus, Dhakuria Lakes (University Rowing Club) and University Ground and Tent at Maidan.

The university has a plan to create a 'Techno Campus', to bring together the engineering and technical departments under one roof, in Salt Lake.

Campus Area
Main Campus Area - 2.7 acres (approx.)
Satellite Campus Area - 16 acres (approx.) excluding
Hazra Press - 1.3 acres
Goenka Hospital Diagnostic Research Centre (Outdoor Clinic) - 0.6 acres
Halls/Hostels - 4.5 acres
Staff Quarters - 4.33 acres
Haringhata Ionosphere Field Station - 19 acres
Baruipur Agriculture Farm - 67.07 acres
Proposed Technology Campus - 4.2 acres

A tradition of notable firsts
A tradition of notable firsts
The Centenary Library at the College Street campus overlooking College Square.

The library was built on the place of the previously existing University Senate HallThe first university located to the east of Suez to teach European Classics, English Literature, European and Indian Philosophy and Occidental and Oriental History.

The first medical school of Asia, the Calcutta Medical College was set up in 1835. Later it was affiliated to the university.

The first college for women in India, the Bethune College was set up in 1879.
The nation s first homeopathy college was established in 1880.
The Science College was established in 1917, the first in India.
The first blind school in India came into being in 1925.
The first university museum in India, The Ashutosh Museum, came into being in 1937.
The Government Arts College was established in 1951.
The Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM) was set up in 1953 as the country s first management institute.

Backward Classes Welfare Cell
The University established a BCW Cell on 06.02.1990 to implement the policies and programmes of the Govt. of India and University Grants Commission for providing facilities to the S.C./S.T./O.B.C. candidates. The Cell was initially formed with financial support of UGC and approval of the Govt. of West Bengal. However ,at present the entire financial assistance is provided by the State Govt. The Cell is headed by a Deputy Registrar. The administrative staff and other facilities to the Cell are being provided by the University from its own resource. For effective implementation of govt. policies and on the basis of the directives of the UGC the University has formed a Standing Committee under Chairmanship of the Vice-Chancellor and the Deputy Registrar as its Member-Secretary. The other members of the committee are from Professors (2-3 persons), Readers (1-2 persons), Lecturers (1-2 persons) of University departments, the Principals (3-5 persons) of affiliated colleges and a representative of the State Govt. The Committee holds its meetings at a regular interval to review the problems of S.C./S.T./O.B.C. communities attached to this University and help to find out the possible solutions. The Cell takes utmost efforts to implement the reservation policies for admission to U.G./P.G. courses of the University. The Cell also monitors the reservation policies in case of recruitment and promotion of teaching and non-teaching staff of the University as far as practicable. For the past two years, with the assistance of UGC, the Cell is conducting coaching programme for the S.C./S.T. candidates willing to appear at NET and other competitive examinations and remedial coaching for final year P.G. Students.

Education and Research
Undergraduates enroll for a three-year program. Students are assigned to a major when they enter the university, and cannot change it later. Science and business disciplines are in high demand, as these fields are perceived to have better job opportunities. Most programs are organized by years, though some programs use a semester system. Most departments offer masters programs that are one or two years in duration. Research in the university is conducted in specialized institutes as well as individual departments, many of which have doctoral programs.

The university has 18 research centers, 650 teachers,[citation needed] 3000 non-teaching staff and 12,400 post-graduate students

Founders
Established in 1857, during the administration of Lord Canning, the Governor General of India, the University of Calcutta is the oldest of the modern universities in India. Officially on the 24 January 1857, it was established as the University of Calcutta or Calcutta University.

University of Calcutta is a state government administered affiliating and research university that has been recognized as a Centre of Excellence by the University Grants Commission (UGC). The main campus of the university is located at College Street in Kolkata while and several other campuses are spread over the metro and its suburbs.

Introduction
University of Calcutta located in the Kolkata is a university of repute. While the College Street campus is the seat of administration, the University has its campus in Rajabazar, Alipore, Ballygunge, Hazra, South Sinthi and in a number of colleges affiliated to the University. It is a `state government administered urban-based affiliating and research university`.

The University is the oldest amongst the modern universities in India. The history of the University goes back to the colonial period. It was established by the then Governor General of India, Lord Canning in 1857. Governor General Lord Canning and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Sir James William Colvile became the first Chancellor and Vice Chancellor of the Calcutta University respectively. The University of Calcutta has eight faculties divided into fifty-five departments. The faculties are Agriculture, Arts, Commerce, Social Welfare & Business Management; Education, Journalism and Library Science; Engineering & Technology; Fine Arts, Music and Home Science, Faculty of Law and Faculty of Science. The Faculty of Agriculture offers postgraduate courses on agronomy, horticulture, Genetics & Plant Breeding and Seed Science & Technology.

University of Calcutta The College street campus, which is spread over an area of 2.7 acres is also known as Ashutosh Siksa Prangan and consists of four buildings Darbhanga Building, Asutosh Building, Hardinge Building, and the Centenary Building. It consists of the Faculty of Arts consisting of twenty-one departments. The Faculty of Education, Journalism and Library Science organized through three departments are also located here. The University College of Science and Technology or popularly Rajabazar Science College is also known as Rashbihari Sikhsa Prangan. It houses the faculty of engineering and technology includes the departments of applied physics, chemical engineering, chemical technology, computer science and engineering, polymer science and technology, radiophysics and electronics, and computer center.

The University College of Science or Ballygunge Science College is also called the Taraknath Siksha Prangan. It consists of the departments of anthropology, biochemistry, botany, and genetics and many more. The faculty of Fine Arts, Music and Home Science offers courses on subjects such as food and nutrition, human development, home science. The Faculty of Law consists of the department of Law. The Faculty of Science is organised under ninteen departments which includes core science subjects like physics, chemistry, botany and also on subjects like biotechnology, microbiology, bioinformatics, marine science etc.The Faculty of Commerce, Social Welfare & Business Management consists of the departments of business management and commerce.

Some of the other campuses of the University are University Press And Book Depot, Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan, Viharilal College of Home Science Campus, University Health Service, Haringhata Campus, Dhakuria Lakes (University Rowing Club) and University Ground and Tent at Maidan.

This University has produced many great scholars and therefore has a rich alumni base. A brainchild of the British rulers in India, University of Calcutta only attained excellence during the vice chancellorship of Sir Ashtosh Mukherji. With a number of achievements in its kitty, the most notable one is the setting up of the first management institute in the country, which is the IISWBM or the Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management.

One of the most important of all Kolkata Universities, the University of Calcutta, also known as the Calcutta University, has bagged in the award for the 'Potential for Excellence' from the University Grants Commission or the UGC. The colleges affiliated to University of Calcutta are around 300 in number some of which are self financing in nature.

The University of Calcutta is one of the oldest universities in the nation being 150 years old. Established in the year 1857, the main campus of the Calcutta University is in College Street in Kolkata, known as the Asutosh Shiksha Prangan.

About University
The University of Calcutta (also known as Calcutta University) is a public university located in the city of Kolkata (previously Calcutta), India, founded on 24 January 1857. It was the first modern university in the Indian subcontinent. It is a state-government administered urban-based affiliating and research university. It has its central campus in College Street (called Ashutosh Shiksha Prangan). Its other campuses are in Rajabazar (called Rashbehari Shiksha Prangan), Ballygunge (called Taraknath Palit Shiksha Prangan), Alipore (called Sahid Khudiram Siksha Prangan), Hazra and South Sinthi.

The University of Calcutta which is also known as Calcutta University was established on 24th January 1857. The University is the first modern university in the Indian subcontinent. It is a state-government administered urban-based affiliating and research university. The University is a member of The Association of Indian Universities (AIU). It has now 58 Post Graduate teaching departments and 209 affiliated colleges, serving about 300,000 students.

The University of Calcutta is the oldest of the modern universities in India. It has so far produced 4 Nobelists, more than any other Indian university: Ronald Ross, Rabindra Nath Tagore, C. V. Raman and Amartya Sen.It was founded in 1857 during the administration of Lord Canning, the Governor General of India. Dr Fredrick John, the education secretary to the then British Government in India, first tendered a proposal to the British Government in London for the establishment of a university in Calcutta, similar to London University, to create an educated class that would help them rule India; at that time the plan failed to obtain the necessary approval. However, a proposal to establish two universities, one in Calcutta and the other in Bombay was later accepted in 1854 and the necessary authority was given. The Calcutta University Act came into force on 24 January 1857 and a 41-member Senate was formed as the policy making body of the university. When the university was first established it had a catchment area covering the area from Lahore to Rangoon (now in Myanmar) , and Ceylon, the largest of any Indian university.

The first Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University were Governor General Lord Canning and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Sir James William Colvile, respectively. In 1858, Joddu Nath Bose and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay became the first graduates of the university. On 30 January 1858, the Syndicate of the Calcutta University started functioning. The first meeting of the Senate was held in the Council room of the Calcutta Medical College. A temporary office of the university was started in a few rented rooms in Camac Street. For several years afterwards the meetings of the Senate and Syndicate were held in a room of the Writers' building. 244 candidates appeared for the first entrance examination of the university, held in March 1857 in the town hall of Calcutta. In 1862, a decision was taken by the Senate to construct for the university a building of its own. Accordingly, the historical Senate Hall was constructed at a cost of Rs. 2,52,221/- and inaugurated on 12 March 1873 by holding the convocation of the university.

In 1857 Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia Government College in Kapurthala , Punjab province of British India became one of the first colleges to be affiliated with University of Calcutta. Later many institutions came under its jurisdiction. Kadambini Ganguly and Chandramukhi Basu became the first female graduates of the country in 1882. The Honourable Justice Gooroodas Banerjee became the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of University of Calcutta in the year 1890. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee was the Vice-Chancellor for four consecutive two-year terms (1906-1914) and a fifth two-year term (1921-23).

Facilities
Calcutta University provides a number of hostels to accommodate students studying in the University Colleges and also the undergraduate students of the colleges as well as men research scholars/fellows of the University. The Library of the University has the collection of more than ten lakh books as well as volumes of bound Journals, M.Phil. and Ph.D. dissertations, proceedings of conferences, reports, maps, standards, patents, newspapers, manuscripts, microfilms, CD-ROMs. The University has also established a BCW Cell for providing facilities to the S.C./S.T./O.B.C. candidates.

Library About Us
Although the University of Calcutta was formally launched in 1857, it had no permanent building of its own, at least in the early years. It might be recalled that the University was initially authorized only to hold examinations and award degrees. In those rudimentary stages of its growth, library, museum and other common facilities did not receive as much attention as they deserved. It was only after the University got a permanent home of its own in 1872 that attempts were initiated for the setting up of a library. Its nucleus was formed out of a small gift of Rs. 5000 by Joykrishna Mukherjee, the public spirited Zamindar of Uttarpara. While donating the money in 1869 he expressed the hope that a small library could be set up by the University. At about the same time Esan Chandra Ghose donated a small collection of books to the University. These efforts marked a small but auspicious beginning.

In 1874-75, an addition of Rs. 3,500 was made to the Library Fund, the total amount of which at that time exceeded Rs. 9,000. The Syndicate considered that a commencement should be made of the building up of a library stock with this sum, the problem of accommodation of the Library having been solved by the completion of the Senate House. A committee comprising Mr. Tawney, Mr. Heeley, Captain Jarret and Mr. Sutcliffe, was formed which reported that the sum was so small that it was impossible to attempt to build a library stock which in any sense could be termed complete. They were, therefore, of opinion that the Calcutta University Library collections should exist as supplementary to other existing libraries in Calcutta especially the newly founded Indian Museum Library. At that time there was no library containing a suitable collection of books except the Indian Museum Library. As technical libraries of Law and Medicine already existed in Calcutta and English literature, Mental Philosophy and many other subjects were represented in several collections of books available to all or most of those who were likely to have recourse to a University Library, the Committee recommended that the sum might be distributed among different subjects in the following way:-

The report of the Committee was accepted by the Syndicate and the University Library occupied one of the two side rooms of the Senate House building. It may be pointed out that the University's income in those days was very small. In 1874-75 the total income amounted to Rs. 96,290, out of which the contribution of the Government was Rs. 47,316. The University Library continued in its humble way till the passing of the University Act in 1904 and the appointment of Sir Asutosh Mookerjee as Vice-Chancellor.

The Calcutta University Act of 1904 provided a special clause which empowered the University to maintain Libraries, Museums and Art Galleries. Henceforth the University began to allot larger sums towards the purchase of books. The first notable acquisition by the University Library was the purchase in 1909 of the entire Library of Prof. R. Pischel of Berlin. His collections contained practically everything that had been published within the preceding thirty or forty years in Europe and North America in the fields of Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, Philosophy including comparative Philosophy, in addition to many other works of interest.

As the University activities were expanding in all directions, pressure for accommodation was being increasingly felt. In 1912, the Library had a new home, thanks largely to the munificence of the then Maharaja of Darbhanga. The Central Hall with its side compartments in the first storey as well as the large hall and its side rooms in the second floor were set apart to accommodate the rapidly expanding library collections. About this time, three whole-time Assistants were appointed for the Library. Prior to this there was no whole-time Assistant for the Library during the first few years of its existence, the Second Assistant in the Registrar's office used to look after library matters as a part-time job. In1886 a new Assistant was taken in for the Library and was given the designation of Assistant Librarian but the Registrar continued to be responsible for the administration of the Library.

In 1912 the Government of India contributed a lakh of rupees for the building up of the library stock and agreed to place the University Library on its distribution list for the free supply of all Government publications. In 1913, Sir Asutosh Mookerjee, the then Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University, acknowledging the contribution made by the Government of India remarked 'the improvements in the Library have been rendered practicable by means of the funds placed at the disposal of the University by the Government of India.'

The University Library was originally meant for the use of the Resident Fellows only, although permissions were granted from time to time to bonafide research workers to use the Library. Later on, rules governing the use of the Library were revised and included Resident Registered Graduates and University teachers and scholars as well.

When the Post-Graduate Department was opened in 1917, the establishment of a lending section for the use of the students was considered essential and the first disbursement on account of books and periodicals was made as follows:- Rs. 18,048 (Arts) and Rs. 8,393 (Science).

Post-Graduate Lending Library (Arts) was first housed in the ground floor of Darbhanga Building and then in the Asutosh Building till 1935 when it was shifted to the top floor of the Asutosh Building along with the collections of the University Library known as Maharaja Rameshwar Prosad Singh Library. The Library functioned till Sunday, the 5th of March, 1967, in the old premises, i.e., at the top floor of the Asutosh Building. From 6 March, 1967, it started functioning in the newly constructed ten storey building, named the Centenary Building. The composition of the University Library has undergone periodic changes. At present the University Library system consists of the Central Library, two campus libraries, thirty-nine departmental libraries and two libraries of the Advanced Centres. The libraries are spread over seven campuses. Departmental libraries are located within the department concerned.

The University library, at present, has a collection of more than ten lakh books. Besides books, the seven campuses of the University together possess more than 2 lakh volumes of bound Journals, M.Phil. and Ph.D. dissertations, proceedings of conferences, reports, maps, standards, patents, newspapers, manuscripts, microfilms, CD-ROMs. The departmental libraries serve the academic disciplines bearing their names. The Central Library serves the entire University community.

As many as 20 departmental libraries out of a total of 39, have a collection of over 15,000 volumes which includes books, bound journals and non-book materials. The Department of Law Library holds over 85,000 volumes in hard copy. The collection is strong in all aspects with special emphasis on legal history and jurisprudence, business and commercial law, taxation and international business transactions. The Department of Law Library's old journal collections include works in the fields of history and other social and behavioural sciences relevant to legal research. Located at the academic heartland of the city, the Central Library is easily accessible from all the different campuses of the University. The library remains open from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. except Saturdays and Sundays when it remains open from 11a.m. to 5 p.m. The library collection is arranged subject-wise.
Computerisation and networking of the University Library has been undertaken under the INFLIBNET programme of the UGC. The University Library has started automation of the library activities using SOUL, a versatile and user-friendly software from INFLIBNET Centre.

The library has its own local Network connected with a server with terminals inside the library. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) of the library has databases of books, journals, theses, CD-ROMs and microfilms. In addition to the above, the University provides access to nearly 4,000 electronic journals to its users in all the campuses under the UGC-INFONET programme. The University Library has posted an on-line catalogue in the University Website consisting of records of books, Ph.D. theses, medical dissertations, BNCC Collection, Peace Studies Collection and others. Now users from across the globe can get information on the collection of the University Library.

In this context it might be not be out of place here to mention that our University has now become one of the few select institutions in India whose collections can be known through the Internet. The immense popularity of the University Library is testified by its steady growth in the number of users. At present on an average one thousand users use the Central Library facilities. In order to promote awareness about the Library among various stakeholders, it organises exhibitions on various subjects on a regular basis.

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Media coverage of University of Calcutta, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal, West Bengal

Calcutta University boss gets a second term in office

KOLKATA: Just when the wind of change swept the entire state and turned the seat of power on its head, it seems Calcutta University managed to remain insulated, with its top boss Suranjan Das - appointed the vice-chancellor of the institution during the Left rule - managing to get a second term for the full four-year tenure. Das is perhaps the only person to find favour with the party mandarins in Alimuddin Street as well as the experts assigned by the present government to free the institutions from the evils of dalatantra.

The eminent scholar and professor said in response, My appointment establishes the fact that I had the merit that has been weighed by the experts. That is precisely why I was selected during the Left Front regime. I have gathered experience in administration in all these years. Das was appointed the pro-VC in 2002. He went onto become the vice-chancellor of Calcutta University on May 2, 2008, for a four-year term under the prevalent Act (under which VCs were appointed by the governor from the three names proposed by the Senate).

Admission to UG courses in Calcutta University from June 28

KOLKATA: Calcutta University has decided to start admissions for undergraduate courses in all affiliated colleges from June 28 after the higher secondary examination results are published.

Merit lists for admission to all honours degree courses will be published by colleges within June 25. Admissions will begin from June 28.

First year classes will commence from the third week of July but the last date for admissions to various courses in colleges is August 6. Students can change their subjects till August 31, said a senior CU official. The last date for submission of registration forms will be September 17 (without late fine) and September 28 (with late fine).

Candidates who passed the 10+2 examination from different boards on or after 2009 will be eligible to seek admission to the first year courses provided they have passed in English with full marks not less than 100.

While calculating the aggregate marks of students, the best four subjects will be taken into consideration. Marks secured in Environment Science will not be considered in the best four subjects unless it is taken as an elective subject.

CU goes slow on college panel nominations

Calcutta, May 12: A recent controversy over a Trinamul leaders alleged interference in the internal affairs of a South 24-Parganas college has cast a shadow on the reconstitution of governing bodies in 27 colleges under Calcutta University.

Mamata Banerjee has expressed her displeasure over allegations that Arabul Islam, a former MLA from Bhangar and president of the governing body of Bhangar Mahavidyalaya, meddled in the colleges academic affairs, prompting CU authorities to go slow on nominating representatives to the governing bodies.

Although the chief minister had promised to depoliticise higher education, Trinamul leaders found place in the governing bodies of many colleges after the new government came to power. The controversy involving Arabul has brought back to the centre stage the issue of politicisation of colleges. That is why the university has decided to go slow, a CU official said.

Bhangar Mahavidyalaya teacher Debjani Dey was hurt during an argument with Arabul when the leaders gesticulating arm caught a jug that crashed into her chin. The teacher had lodged an FIR.

The governing bodies, which handle administrative matters, have a tenure of four years. After the completion of the term, they are either reconstituted or given extension.

By November, the tenures of all the 27 governing bodies had ended, several of them months earlier. A week before their terms ended, CU had issued a notification extending their tenure till April 16.

The tenures were again extended by three months. According to rules, the total extension cannot be more than 18 months. As the extended terms of some of the governing bodies have either exceeded 18 months or are set to be over in the next two months, new members have to be inducted.

The varsity can nominate two members to a governing body. But the authorities are in a bind over the nominations because Trinamul sympathisers are clamouring for berths, a college principal said.

CU had planned to prepare the list of nominees for the 27 colleges at a meeting held yesterday but did not do so as the authorities were not sure what to do. Varsity vice-chancellor Suranjan Das cited technical reasons for deferring the process of preparing the list. He said the names were likely to be finalised at the next meeting of the syndicate, which could be held next week.

But given the situation in Bengal, the question remains whether all universities can ensure induction of academicians into college governing bodies, a former member of the CU syndicate said.

The main reason behind the CU dilemma, sources said, was the contrasting approach of the chief minister and a section of Trinamul supporters. While Mamata wants party members to stay off campuses, a section of Trinamul wants to be in positions of prominence in academic institutions.

The practice of packing college governing bodies with party loyalists started in Bengal in 1979, when the CPM-led government enacted a statute allowing induction of politicians into such panels.

The governing bodies of nearly 40 colleges have Trinamul MPs, MLAs and local leaders as members.

Once the list of nominees for the 27 colleges is prepared, it will become clear if the chief ministers message to political leaders has had any impact, a retired CU professor said.

Its not sport

In less than six months, the armed forces apex sports body is again in the eye of the storm, this time for submitting fake certificates to the Sports Authority of India.

Recently, the Sports Authority of India (SAI) sent back six army men who had applied for the SAI diploma course in Sports Coaching. The men were axed from the programme not because they did not perform but because they submitted forged graduation certificates and mark sheets.

The issue came to light when SAI for the first time wrote a letter to the Services Sports Control Board (SSCB) claiming that the SSCB sponsored candidate, Naib Subedar Saji Kumar of the EME Centre, Secundrabad had submitted a bogus degree certificate and mark sheet from University of Calicut. Saji Kumar was admitted to the course on the basis of these documents. This letter was sent in July 2011.

The SAI imparts training in Sports Coaching at its SAI centres across India. To qualify for the course the candidate has to be a graduate. Individuals who want to take up this course are required to apply through the armed forces service channels to the SSCB. It is only after due scrutiny of the Qualitative Requirement (QRs) that the applications are forwarded to the SAI.

The SSCB first became aware of the irregularity in July 2011 but then several other cases cropped up, the latest being in January this year. Questions are now being raised as to whether this is a systemic failure or a result of impropriety on the part of officials who cleared the candidates for the said course. The president of the SSCB Air Marshal J.N. Burma issued a special letter in which he put the issue of forgery on record, asking whether any action was being taken in the matter.

In the letter, Air Marshal Burma expresses his worry that the issue is undermining the image of the services. Burma writes, Act of forgery on the part of personnel of the armed forces is a matter of serious concern. The letters mentions six cases involving six different candidates. The letter also figures Burmas comment that This act of individuals producing fake certificates is disturbing, and is likely to sully the image of the armed forces in the filed of sports.

But the most damning statement in the letter is the one that points to the larger malaise afflicting the armed services, where Burma states that the applications were passed to the SAI after being checked by the respective service authority officers, After due scrutiny of the QRs the applications are forwarded to the SAI.

Asked whether this revealed a possibility of collusion, a senior officer said that the issue could not have occurred had there been no collusion, The officers manning the SSCB could have asked the very unit to which the offender belongs to submit the graduation certificates and mark sheets as per their records. This is foolproof because every unit is a custodian of records of every person with it. The officer further added that there is a chance that this procedure was overlooked in order to promote certain people over others or provide certain incentives sought by the candidates. The armed forces regularly provides incentives such as special increments as well as out-of-turn promotions to encourage soldiers to take up sports. This is provided to the three services – army, navy and the air force – by the SSCB.

The SSCB is the apex body of the armed forces sports division which is entrusted with the task of promoting sports not just between the three arms of the defence establishment but also for the benefit of sports at the national and international fora. Promotion of sports in the armed forces is also seen as a way of improving the standard of sports in the country.

The three branches of the armed forces are yet to respond to Burmas query but it is obvious that such aberrations do not sit easy on the establishment. The issue now is whether the armed forces can take quick, decisive action on the matter. Those in the know claim that by the time the investigation starts rolling people responsible for the situation would have either retired or reaped the benefits.

It would not be the first time that delayed action on the part of the defence establishment has benefited certain individuals. Just six months ago newspapers had carried an expose that described how the SSCB was responsible for issuing fake certificates and selecting undeserving soldiers as sportsmen for the national events. It is no secret that this practice has impacted the image of the armed forces. Not only do these sportsmen not perform to the mark on the field but they also deprive other deserving candidates a chance to shine in the sports arena.

The current scam like the earlier one, say officers, is a result of a lacunae in the system of selection itself. It has its basis in the disparate sports policy of the three services. The recruitment of sportsmen and the reward system is different in all the three services. One solution could be implementation of a uniform sports policy for all the three services, says a senior officer on condition of anonymity.

It is pointed out that, for instance, the Army Physical Training Corp exists only for the army and that no such set-up exists for the navy or air force.

The selection of soldiers for the Sports Coaching diploma course based on forged documents reflects a complete lack of transparency and commitment to excellence. The nature of sports is such that it demands that coaches inculcate discipline, fairness and honesty. How does that match with motives and intentions of those who have no qualms in depositing fake documents?

The three services of armed forces have the means of producing world class sportsmen given the amount of money that is spent on providing top-of-the line infrastructure and the policy of providing international exposure.

In his letter, Air Marshal J.N. Burma says that after the axing of the six armed personnel, all possible measures had been taken. Fact remains, that unless the officials responsible for these lapses are investigated and action taken there is no knowing when the issue may crop up again.

Sustainable development depends on extra-ordinary energy efficiency

Extra-ordinary Energy Efficiency is the key word for sustainable growth, Dr. Siddhartha Roy, Director if Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB) said today while inaugurating a National Seminar on Biotechnology for Sustainable Development in Kolkata. The two-day informative national seminar is organized by the Biuotechnology department of the Heritage Institute of Technology Kolkata to ponder over the way biotechnology can play a greater role for the sustainable development of the mankind.

If any key point is touched, the basic difference with the primitive society and the modern society is the use of energy. While primitive society used minimum energy and modern society uses as much as possible threatening future generations Dr Roy said adding our bios system doesnt need so much use of energy. Chemical Biology is trying to find way to become extra-ordinary energy efficient while synthetic biotechnology is trying to evolve a new system where already discovered synthetic microbe can function on sunrays, he said. Talking to media besides the seminar he advised to be rational on use of automobile, the segment where we do not care for energy efficiency.

A professor of Calcutta University, on condition of anonymity, pointed to the way the nation misuses millions of kilowatts energy and thus making development more and more unsustainable. Referring the case of former State Governor Gopal Krishna Gandhi, he said, Despite Mr Gandhis earnest request cricket matches at night were not rescheduled. Can a nation like India, where electricity is scarcity, do this? Pointing to recent efforts to glitter the city statues with chain lamps, he said, can respect be paid by just enlightening the statues?

In Key-Note addres, Prof. D J Chattopadhyay, Pro VC of Calcutta University, stressed on bio-technological developments in agricultural sector and admitted several questions are being raised on BT crops by environmentalists and NGOs. But, recent data shows, 75 per cent of cotton growers have already shifted to BT Cotton for various reasons. On the burning issues relation to health and environment, he pointed to follow bio-ethics and warn of creating another Frankenstein of 21st Century. Future development of bio-technology should take care that BT crop doesnt come as detrimental to future generation, he added.

During these two days the eminent speakers, including Dr. Debdutta Bandhyopadhyay of Ahmedabad-based Zydus Research Centre, Dr Dulal Pandaof IIT Mumbai, Dr. Subhash Santra of University of Kalyani, Dr. Subhash Neogi of Jadavpuyr University, Dr. B C Ghosh of IIT Kharagpur and Dr. Sulagna Chatterjee of Heritage Institute of Technology will emphasize topics like Healthcare and drug development, environmental management, agriculture for rural development and Bio-process technology.

Responding to Dr Roys special emphasize on energy efficiency, a spokesman of Heritage, said that Heritage Institute, as a part on this movement of sustainable development through Green Energy, has established 100 Kilo watt Solar power panels with assistance from Department of Renewable Energy Govt. of India where the the department has invested more than a crore under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission.

Calicut Universitys VC to enjoy commando protection

Vice-Chancellor of Calicut Univeristy M. Abdul Salaam is going to be the most protected academic in the country. The university has decided to form a special squad of three well trained and energetic members who accompany the VC wherever he goes.

This security team will get the vehicle and the mobile phones. And, police escort will definitely continue. The decision is the result of an assault on the VC by a university employee.

Salaam was hit on his head in front of his office by somebody early this month. In connection to the incident, three employees are suspended and cases have been charged against 12 others.

In this regard, university has recruited 40 more security men making the total number 100. Authorities are also thinking about appointing officers for gathering intelligence.

Vehicle movements within the campus will be restricted too. Round-the-clock patrol will also be deployed. VC told the media that the politically tense atmosphere is not good for academic.

GM rice trial waits for expert opinion

After the heated controversy over the BT brinjal trial, now it is the turn of GM rice. An expert committee to look in to granting permission for GM rice trial will submit its report on October 30 to the West Bengal government after which a final decision will be taken.

The field trial of a genetically modified rice variety had been deferred till a three member expert
committee formed to look into the food security aspect submited its report, said Sudarshan Ghosh Dastidar, the West Bengal Environment Minister.

The trial, scheduled to be held at the Chinsurah Rice Research Station, was stopped following concern expressed by agricultural experts. Such a trial needs to be carried out at a proper isolation distance and the field for the trial has to be
made at a minimum distance of 300 metres from other existing crops, he said quoting the experts.

The minister said various multinational companies controlling the GM seed bank are trying desperately to foist the GM crops into the country. He said that such trials of GM crops would jeopardise food security and undermine the existing seed bank in the country.

Agricultural experts have expressed reservation that such transgenic rice variety might pose a threat to bio-diversity and affect other existing seeds, thus disturbing the food security.

Earlier, field trials of genetically modified brinjal had also been cancelled on same food security concerns. The particular rice variety on which trial was to be conducted is named Oryza sativa L containing gene for high iron content. Calcutta University had got the permission to conduct the trials from the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) in November, last year.

However, GEAC had put a condition that the trial has to be made at an isolation distance of 200 metres (either to keep the area vacant or to grow any crop other than rice) to avoid genetic contamination of rice germplasm maintained
there. Experts said the Chinsurah rice station does not have enough space to have a 200-metre isolation distance on its
four sides and pointed out that in any case GM food grain is banned across the world.

Happy to share Teesta: Mamata

The Teesta water-sharing issue would not strain cordial relations between West Bengal and Bangladesh. Chief minister Mamata Banerjee announced this while addressing a joint press conference with Bangladesh foreign minister Dipu Moni

at the state secretariat, the Writers Buildings, on Wednesday. She also informed that the state government has formed a study group under the chairmanship of river expert Kalyan Rudra to find out the implications of sharing Teesta water.
India and Bangladesh were supposed to sign the Teesta water-sharing accord in September during Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs visit to Bangladesh, but the Union government had to back out from signing the agreement after Ms Banerjee raised objections to it.
We will be happy if Bangladesh gets more water from Teesta. But the state had some objections regarding the way the agreement was framed because it would hamper the Teesta Barrage project and some thermal power plant projects, Ms Banerjee informed.
She added, An expert team will review the entire situation and would guide us on the way the agreement has to be made. Bangladesh is our friend nation and we are not against giving water to it. The two countries will resolve the matter through discussions and there will neither be a problem nor any controversy. But water has to be shared in such a formula so that North Bengal doesnt face a water crisis, the projects are not hampered and Bangladeshs interest is also kept.
Ms Moni said since the matter of sharing Teesta waters was a bilateral issue, it has to be negotiated between the Bangladesh and Indian governments. West Bengals concern regarding Teesta water is an internal affair of the state and the Union government and so I have nothing to comment on it. But the cordial relations between West Bengal and Bangladesh will remain and will be further strengthened, Ms Moni said.
She also invited Ms Banerjee to visit Bangladesh for attending two programmes in December and March.
The chief minister accepted the invitation and assured that she would visit the neighbouring country depending on her other engagements.
the Bangladesh foreign minister Moni also informed that Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has accepted the invitation to attend the Calcutta Universitys convocation.
During the meeting, the chief minister also proposed the Bangladesh foreign minister to form a task force between the two countries on cultural industry.

The new name hasnt gone down well with many

A consensus over the name of the state of West Bengal has finally been arrived at in the state Assembly recently. But it does not mean the end of debate.

At a time when change or poribartan is in the air, this was one change that most people had warmed up to. However, the state governments announcement on August 19 to change the name of the state to Paschim Banga has left many debating about the name change.

While announcing the decision, which was arrived at at an all-party meeting, Parliamentary Affairs Minister Partha Chatterjee asserted that the name had been chosen through consensus.

Needless to say, right from strong support to downright opposition and indifference, the governments latest move of changing the states name has evoked mixed response among the masses.

Debates have erupted on social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter too. Professor of sociology Debabrata Mukherjee expressed dissatisfaction over the change, If we seriously need to change the name of the state, then Banga or Bangla would have been much better. While there is no existence of Purba Banga, how can Pachim Banga be better? Reportedly, even the Chief Minister herself was not too happy with the new name but she went ahead with it because the consensus had been arrived on Paschim Banga. You may like it or dislike it, but we must go with the larger interest of the state, She said.

Earlier, like with other prominent name changes in recent years – Bombay to Mumbai and Madras to Chennai – Calcuttas name also was changed to Kolkata some time back. But still, no one is prone to calling institutions like Calcutta University as Kolkata University. Then why has the current name change been taken up?

Before the Nomenclature Bill was passed in the state assembly, a committee consisting of West Bengals Parliamentary Affairs Minister Partha Chatterjee and Leader of Opposition, Surjya Kanta Mishra had shortlisted a few names to replace West Bengal. And considering several facts and issues, the said All Party Meeting also opted for the Bengali translation of West Bengal.

The state government had been contemplating to change the name of the state since Jyoti Basus time for administrative purposes.

One reason has been that alphabetically, the letter W comes deep down the order and so the state Chief Minister usually gets to speak in the end in the meetings convened by the Centre. Talking to media, Partha Chatterjee said, We actually wanted a change in the name of the state to get various administrative advantages.

In several important meetings where all states make representations, West Bengal comes last (and) those listening are often exhausted when our turn comes.

Former Chief Minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee had also tried to have a unanimous decision, but political volatility prevented his efforts. However, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee h

Students can inspect their answer-sheets: SC

The re-evaluation of examination will never be the same again for the students. In a path-breaking verdict, the Supreme Court on Tuesday confirmed that any student has the right to access their answer-sheets under Right to Information Act, 2005. Be it a Board or University exams, or any kind of test to crack the admission into professional courses as well as the UPSC, SSC-like job recruitment test, as per the court from now on the dissatisfied students can take a look at how they had been evaluated by moving an RTI application.

Till date, only the re-tabulation of marks was possible with the so-called review or scrutiny system. But now, by this kind of landmark decision, the highest court of India has almost guaranteed the re-evaluation of answer-sheets, which will take an account of whether the examiner had missed out giving marks for answers to some of the questions.Explaining the scope of the fiduciary relationship of the agency holding the examination, a Supreme Court bench comprising Justices R V Raveendran and A K Patnaik gave this verdict, upholding a Calcutta High Court order permitting students to inspect their answer sheets.

The verdict came through a petition filed earlier on August 14, 2007 by a Calcutta University student Preetam Ruz. Being totally upset with his Graduation marks, Preetam, who got 91.6% in Madhyamik (Class X examination) and 80.8% at the higher secondary (Class XII) examination filed that petition in Calcutta High Court seeking permission to inspect into his answer sheets. Though High Court pronounced its judgment in favour of Ruz, but CBSE, West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE), Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), University of Calcutta (CU), Public Services Commission and many such institution immediately approached for the highest courts decision.

Welcoming the judgment the eminent educationist Sunanda Sanyal told, Its nothing but a superb start of the long demanded educational reforms. Probably from now on students will be evaluated properly.

Examinees have right to inspect answer-sheets: SC

The examinees have a right to inspect answer-sheets under the transparency law, the Supreme Court on Tuesday ruled. The evaluated answer-sheets are covered under the definition of the information under the Right to Information Act, a bench comprising Justices R V Raveendran and A K Patnaik said.

It upheld the judgement of the Calcutta High Court which had said rejection for inspection of answer-sheets cannot be sustained. The apex court dismissed the appeals of Central Board of Secondary Education CBSE), West Bengal Board of Secondary Education, West Bengal Council for Higher Education, University of Calcutta, Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and West Bengal Central School Service Commission which had challenged the February 5, 2009 judgement.

The apex court agreed with the findings of the High Court that the examination conducting bodies do not retain the evaluated answer-sheets under any fiduciary capacity. The Assam Public Service Commission and Bihar Public Service Commission had also joined in and opposed the disclosure of answer-sheets to examinees. The apex court rejected the contention that disclosure of answer-sheets and allowing the inspection would lead to the collapse of entire system.

It agreed with the findings of the division bench of the High Court which had said we have little hesitation in holding that an assessed-evaluated answer script of an examinee writing a public examination conducted by public bodies like WBBSE, CBSE or Universities, which are created by statutes, does come within the purview of information as defined in the RTI Act.

The High Court had also held that there was no merit in the submission that giving the examinees access to their answer scripts would not serve any public interest. Disclosure of assessed-evaluated answer scripts would definitely be conducive to improvement of quality of assessment-evaluation. Examiners appointed by WBBSE or the University are not their employees. They are beyond the disciplinary control of the public authorities.

Calcutta University is in the frontline of higher education

Kolkata was once the leading centre of learning in the country. But thats not the case now. What are the reasons for the decline?
I dont believe in that. I think CU was in the frontline of higher education earlier. It continues to be so and will remain so in the future. Heres why:

G>. The UGC has identified nine universities in the country as universities with potential for excellence and CU is one of them.
. CU has the largest numbers of departments having DRS, DSA and CAS status.
. According to a India Today Nielsen survey (May 31, 2010 issue) CU has been ranked number one among state universities and number three among Central and state universities taken together.
. I refer to the journal Current Science, Vol 97, September 2009, which shows the number of NET-qualified during 2002-2006. CU ranks very high as one of the top 20 universities.
. Scopus, (a bibliographic database containing abstracts and citations for scholarly journal articles) shows, that in terms of the impact factor of publication in science and technology, CU is ranked sixth at the all-India level.
. In a study which analyses the higher education and research scenario in ten states of India during 2000 to 2006, CU is ranked first in terms of published research articles (on an average 664 articles in a year in peer- reviewed national and international journals).

. In 2009, the National Assessment and Accreditation Council has re-accredited CU with Grade A.
. In November 2009 the UN had organised an international conference of VCs and educationists from 90 countries of the world. It was held in the UN headquarters in New York. UN, after the conference, identified 10 universities from across the world as academic hubs and CU is the only university from India which has been granted this recognition.

A unique feature of our university is that we have been able to maintain a fine balance between conventional subjects and emerging areas like bio-sciences and applied sciences. The government of India has recently given us a grant of R100 crore to set up a centre of excellence in nano sciences. The ministry of external affairs of the government of India has sponsored the establishment of an institute of foreign policy studies in our university, which is the first of its kind in the country.

Where does Kolkata stand vis-à-vis other metros of the country as an educational destination?
Kolkata ranks high as an educational destination. But we need to do more. We need to develop more inter-disciplinary teaching and research. However, we have two problems: a) our size. 300,000 undergraduate students spread over 170 colleges and 12,000 postgraduate students spread over seven campuses. Therefore, the student teacher ratio is unfavourable. b) We have shortage of space.

In terms of funding from the UGC there is a bias towards the central universities. As a result of this in the 11th Plan period we have received only R21 crore from the UGC, whereas central universities like JNU, Delhi University, Aligarh and Jamia have received anywhere between R250 crore to R300 crore.
Is there anything unique about the education that a student might expect to get in the city?
Kolkata is the culture capital of India. It is true that Kolkata ceases to be as cosmopolitan as say, Delhi or Mumbai, now. But cultural exposure-wise its unique. Education, I believe, is a holistic thing. It would be incomplete without the cultural exposure.

How has the education scenario changed?
Many private players have entered the field. PPP in education is welcome but that should not degenerate into a commercial activity.

115 MW from the heart of the sun

115 MW from the heart of the sun Dailies, nationwide, headlined the infamous blackout at Kolkatas Eden Gardens. Days after the incident, power failed at the Calcutta University Centenary Hall as well with the chief minister still on stage, putting his Z-plus security in a tizzy. No wonder, the state has decided to generate 115 MW through solar energy. It will set up an exclusive manufacturing hub for solar energy components at an expected investment of Rs 1500 crore.

The state generates only 15 MW of electricity through solar energy. But in the next three years, it will churn out an additional 115 MW, according to the MD of the West Bengal Green Energy Development Corporation Ltd, Dr S P Gon Chowdhury. By 2013, India will generate 1300 MW of solar power. Thats the target for the first phase of the National Solar Mission of the Ministry of New Renewable Energy (MNRE). By 2013, West Bengal, Gujarat and Rajasthan together plan to generate about 30 per cent of the national target of 1300 MW of solar energy. Gujarat will pitch in with 130 MW and Rajasthan with 110 MW. The Centre will allocate the projects to the states on January 11. Chowdhury told that the state will promote rooftop solar panels in a big way. So much so, that five MW of the states targeted output will come from rooftop solar power panels itself. The rest, he said, will be generated over large swathes of land statewide. He also said the generated power will fetch a tariff of between Rs 15 and Rs 17 per unit. He added that the NTPCs newly created company, Bidyut Vapyar Nigam Ltd, will buy that power and push it into the national grid. In fact, it was acclaimed film director and former Rajya Sabha MP Mrinal Sen who is said to have shown the way. As an MP, he had donated a part of his MPLAD Fund for setting up of Indias first Energy Park. This has not only demonstrated ways of generating alternative and green energy but also shown alternatives like pump storage or even producing energy through paddle power.

Sen said, Being inspired by then power minister Sankar Sens initiative, I first donated some amount of money for setting up a solar power plant at a remote village of Birbhum district. That charged me and I donated the entire amount in three installments to the minister and Chowdhury for that Energy Park. He added, MPs should allocate their MPLAD funds for such projects instead of misusing them. West Bengal plans to set up a dedicated hub at Andal in Burdwan district to manufacture components for solar energy units. Spread over 100 acres, it is likely to attract an investment of Rs 1000 crore by 2013. Four companies are already generating power under this project, Gon Chowdhury told.

Class-X public examination – a burden or boon?

In our formal education system secondary education plays a vital role in shaping the character and developing the personality of the teenagers. At primary stage the students are still in their childhood. As they proceed tosecondary stage they enter their teenage (adolescence). Adolescence is a period of turmoil and rapid physical, mental, intellectual, emotional, social and moral development. They become more and more active, more and more energetic, more and more imaginative, more and more creative and more and more potential.Secondary education is supposed to channelise, their great potential. Proper channelling of their potential is very important as they are the future citizens of our country.

At the end of secondary stage the Class-X public examination has been conducted in our country since the pre-independence days by different universities-education boards-councils at the State and national levels. In Assam this Class-X publicexamination was known by different names like – Entrance Examination (conducted by Calcutta University till 1947), Matriculation Examination (conducted by Gauhati University from 1948 to 1963), and High School Leaving Certificate Examination (conducted by Board of Secondary Education, Assam since 1964). Board of Secondary Education, Assam has also been conducting the Assam High Madrassa Examination for the students of Class-X studying at High Madrassas. Though Class-X public examination in Assam has been named High School Leaving Certificate Examination (HSLC) since 1964, even to-day it is popularly known as matric which is supposed to mean Matriculation Examination or HSLC Examination. Even an illiterate villager knows what matric is. It is interesting that there are still thousands of villagers in Assam who do not know what HSLCExamination is. In reality matriculates of the past (till 1960s or so) could easily get jobs and they enjoyed a special status in the society and commanded love and respect. So, matric was not a mere publicexamination, it meant a host of things.

Matric is the target of thousands of guardians for their children, particularly in rural Assam. To them matriculation is a higher academic qualification to make a person educated, to get a job, to get a good bride-groom and what not. So matrichas psychological and social implications.

A time was there before and after independence (till 1960s or so) when a good number of people travelled a long distance to have a look at the student (particularly in rural Assam) who passed the MatriculationExamination. This was because of the fact that passing the examination was not an easy task. Moreover, the number of students who passed this examination could be counted on finger tips and the pass percentage was very low. Even today common people have high opinion about matric.

No doubt, examination often causes stress, anxiety and fear in the tender minds and even in the mature-adult minds. So many educationists are in favour of abolition of publicexamination up to secondary level. They think that examination is a burden on the young students. Of late, there had been discussions at the national level to make Class-X public examination optional and to hold first public examination at the end of Class-XII. Surprisingly the Central Government has decided to make Class-X public examination optional from 2011. The Government of India has already taken a decision to universalise secondary education under Rastriya Madhyamic Siksha Abhijan, which is now being implemented throughout India. This has lowered the status and importance of Class-X publicexamination.

The universalisation will mean promoting all students of Class X to the next higher class without considering their performance or achievement level. Students will be at liberty to sit the Class-X publicexamination or not. Again teachers may have a choice to complete the course or not. So, students will be divided into two classes-one group having certification from a State or national level organisation, the other having certification from their respective schools. There will be great differences in the learning-efficiency levels of the students coming from different institutions-regions. The new situation will necessitate the holding of entrance examinations to be conducted by individual institutions for admission into class-XI or other courses. These entrance examinations can not always be expected to be fair and free from all malpractices. It will definitely create chaos in the academic sphere.

When passing examination is guaranteed, majority of the students will not be motivated to learn properly and they wont study hard to perform better. Seriousness and sincerity of the students will be affected. Students of provincialised-government schools will be more affected.

It is true that examination is a necessary evil and all are more or less affected by this evil. Students study because they have to sit and pass examination to go for further studies or to get a job or to settle in life.

A nation-wide debate should have been held before making Class-X public examination optional. The decision taken hurriedly will have far reaching effects in the educational and social spheres of the nation. As the States of India have equal rights in the matters of education, the Central government cannot compel the State governments to implement all central decisions in educational matters. So uniformity in education throughout the nation will be a cry in wilderness. There will be further chaos in the educational sphere of the country. We can not expect that all the State Boards of education will make Class-X public examination optional or abolish the same.

It is a fact that majority of the guardians are in favour of continuing the present Class-X public examination. In the changed situation we may think of bringing about some practical reforms in Mass-X public examination to retain the same and to maintain quality in education as well. This examination may be made flexible and students may be allowed to take their own time to write the answers. We may even think of examination with textbooks. The present practice of dividing the students as successful (passed) and unsuccessful (failed) may be done away with. All may be given opportunity for betterment of their performance. Allowing students to sit at theexamination at their respective schools may reduce the stress caused by additional travel and unfamiliar environment.

Age bar may be removed. Some reforms may be effected in question patterns. Steps may be taken to minimise the subjectivity in evaluatingthe answers. These and some other reforms are expected to go a long way in retaining the glory of this examination and maintaining qualitative growth of education.

Remembering Rajani Kanta Bordoloi

Rajani Kanta Bordoloi was one of the pioneers of the romantic movement in Assamese literature who contributed immensely to the domain of Assamese fictional literature. Prior to him, a number of writers had tried to write many novels, but they failed to master the art of fiction. True to the concept of literary genre, Bordolois Miri Jiyari published in 1894 is regarded as the first Assamese novel and he is considered to be the father of Assamese fictionalliterature.

After passing the Entrance examination from Guwahati Govt High School in 1885, Bordoloi left for Kolkata to pursue higher studies. There he came to the contact of western thoughts and ideas brought by English language andliterature. Imbued with nationalist fervour, a group of Assamese students studying at Kolkata at that time brought out a literary magazine called Jonaki. The literary upsurge brought by the magazine inspired Bordoloi to write his first article called Sarir Tatwa in the pages of Jonaki that was the beginning ofliterary career of Rajani Kanta Bordoloi who laid the foundation of Assamese fictional literature.

After graduating in Arts from Calcutta University in 1890, Bordoloi joined the office of the Deputy Commissioner at Guwahati as a clerk. In 1903, he had been promoted to the rank of Extra Assistant Commissioner and transferred to Golaghat. As a government officer he had served in many places of Assam in different capacities. It gave Bordoloi a rare opportunity to closely observe the diverse culture, customs and traditions of different sections of people live in different parts of the State.

In 1892, Bordoloi was transferred to North Lakhimpur as Sub-Deputy Collector. The colorful life of the Mishings was live on the bank of the river Subansiri inspired Bordoloi to pen his maiden novel called Miri Jiyari. Through a simple love story he beautifully described the rich culture and tradition of the Mishings in the novel. The novel published in 1894 laid a milestone in Assameseliterature. After more than 100 years of its publication, the novel is still regarded as the widely read book in Assamese literature.

His second novel Manomoti (1900) is based on the historical background of the last few years of Ahom rule in Assam. From literary point of view, it has been acclaimed as the best work of Bordoloi. With the help of an appealing story full of romance and horror he neatly described a vivid picture of the Burmese invasion of Assam. His other six novels viz Dandua Droh ( 1909), Rongili (1925), Radha Rukminir Ran (1925), Nirmal Bhakat (1925), Tamreswari Mandir (1926) and Rahdoi Ligiri (1930) described a particular period of Assam history. His last novel Khamba Thoibir Sadhukatha (1932) is actually an adaptation of a Manipuri folk legend called Khamba Thoibi Givari. With the help of a tragiclove story he beautifully described the Manipuri culture, traditions, religious faiths and beliefs in the novel.

In terms of the treatment of subject matter and style of description, among his nine novels only Miri Jiyari and Khamba Thoibir Sadhukatha belong to the category of the social novels. All others can be regarded as historical novels. Rather than the story, Bordoloi seems to gave more emphasis upon history and traditions of the society in his novels. So many critics treated them as historical narratives rather than novels in proper. Through a romanticlove story , Bordoloi tried to project the glorious past of the State in his novels. Therefore, many critics called him as Walter Scott of Assam.

A master craftsman of fiction, Bordoloi artistically drew a panoramic picture of the contemporary Assamese society in his novels. The multifacial culture of Assamese society, its rich heritage, folk songs and dances are a part and parcel of his novels. In Miri Jiyari he beautifully described the tradition of Marong Ghar and Nara Singa Bihu of the Mishing society. He extensively used Bihu songs in his novel Rongili and gave a vivid description of the celebration of Rongali Bihu at Rongpur, the capital of Ahom kingdom. In Manomoti he beautifully described Holi festival of Barpeta celebrated annually with pomp and geity.

Reverentially called as Upanyash Samrat (king of novel) the writings of Bordoloi are not confined only to fictional literature. An exponent of Vaishnavite culture and tradition, he prepared a paper on Sankardeva as Mahapurush Sri Sri Sankardeva and presented it in a public function held on the occasion of the death anniversary of Sankardeva in 1920. He also wrote an article on Mayamoriyas, a major Vaishnavite sect in Assam as About the Mayamoriy. He prepared the outline of a biographical sketch of Bhattadeva, the founder of Assamese proseliterature and published it in Awahan. He was a regular contributor to many leading magazines like Banhi, Usha and Awahan. He also left an indelible imprint in the field of journalism by editing a monthly magazine called Pradipika.

Bordoloi was a pioneer in the tea plantation of Assam. After retiring from his service, he set up a tea estate at Makum in Tinsukia district and devoted himself for the cause of Assamese language andliterature. He also adorned the prestigious post of president of the Asam Sahitya Sabha held at Nagaon in 1920.
(Published on the occasion of death anniversary of Bordoloi).

Colleges affiliated with this University

Total number of colleges affiliated with this University = 210
1 Acharya JC Bose College, Kolkata
2 Acharya Prafulla Chadra College, 24 Parganas North
3 Al Ameen Memorial Minority College, Baruipur
4 Amdanga Jugolkishore Mahavidyalaya, Sadhanpur
5 Ananda Mohan College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
6 Asutosh College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
7 Azad Hind Fouz Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Domjur
8 Bagnan College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
9 Bamanpukur HumayunKabir Mahavidyalaya, Bamanpukur
10 Bangabasi College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
11 Bangabasi Evening College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
12 Bangabasi Morning College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
13 Banipur Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Banipur
14 Bankim Sardar College, Tangrakhali
15 Barasat College, Barasat
16 Barasat Government College, Barasat
17 Barrackpore Rastraguru Surendranath College, Barrackpore
18 Baruipur College, 24 Parganas South
19 Basanti Devi College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
20 Basirhat College, Basirhat
21 Behala College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
22 Bengal Music College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
23 Bethune College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
24 Bhairab Ganguly College, Belgharia
25 Bhangar Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
26 Bhowanipur Education Society College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
27 Bidhan Chandra College Computer Centre, Rishra
28 Bijoy Krishna Girls College, Howrah
29 Bikash Bharati Law College, Joyrampur
30 Bramha Nanda Keshab Chandra College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
31 Budge Budge College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
32 CALCUTTA GIRLS BT COLLEGE, Kolkata (Calcutta)
33 Calcutta Girls College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
34 Carey Institute of Horticulture, Kolkata (Calcutta)
35 Chandraketugarh Sahidullah Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Debalaya
36 Charuchandra College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
37 Chittaranjan College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
38 City College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
39 City College of Commerce and Business Administration, Kolkata (Calcutta)
40 DAVID HARE TRAINING (IASE) COLLEGE, Kolkata (Calcutta)
41 Debnarayan Shiksha Sansthan, Sonarpur
42 Derozio Memorial College, Gopalpur
43 Deshbandhu College for Girls, Kolkata (Calcutta)
44 Dhola Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
45 Dhruba Chand Halder College (DCHC), Kolkata (Calcutta)
46 Dinabandhu Andrews College, Garia, Kolkata (Calcutta)
47 Dinabandhu Institute, Howrah
48 Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya, Bongaon
49 Dr BR Ambedkar Satabarshiki Mahavidyalaya, Helencha
50 Dr. Kanailal Bhattacharya College, Santragachi
51 Dum Dum Motijheel College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
52 Dum Dum Motijheel Rabindra Mahavidyalaya, Kolkata (Calcutta)
53 East Calcutta Girls College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
54 EI-BETHEL COLLEGE, Rasapunja
55 Fakir Chand College, 24 Parganas South
56 Gandhi Centenary BT College, 24 Parganas North
57 Gangabharpur Mahavidyamandir, Howrah
58 GANGADHARPUR SIKSHAN MANDIR, Gangadharpur
59 Gobardanga Hindu College, Gobardanga
60 Goenka College of Commerce and Business Administration, Kolkata (Calcutta)
61 Gokhale Memorial Girls College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
62 Gopal Chandra Memorial College of Education, Barasat
63 Gour Mohan Sachin Mandal Mahavidyalaya, Bireswarpur
64 Government Bidhannagar College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
65 Government College of Arts & Crafts, Kolkata (Calcutta)
66 Gurudas College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
67 Harimohan Ghosh College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
68 Heramba Chandra College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
69 Hingalganj Mahavidyalaya, Hingalganj
70 Hiralal Mazumdar Memorial College for Women, Kolkata (Calcutta)
71 Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM), Kolkata (Calcutta)
72 Institute of Education for Women, Kolkata (Calcutta)
73 Institute Of Jute Technology, Kolkata (Calcutta)
74 Institute of Science and Advance Research, Kolkata (Calcutta)
75 JAGADISH CHANDRA BASU SIKSHAK S MAHAVIDYALAYA, Kolkata (Calcutta)
76 Jaypur Panchanan Roy College, Howrah
77 Jibantala Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
78 Jogesh Chandra Chaudhuri College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
79 Jogesh Chandra Choudhury Law College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
80 Jogomaya Devi College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
81 K.K. Das College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
82 Kalinagar Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas North
83 KAMALA DEVI SOHANRAJ SINGHVI JAIN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, Kolkata (Calcutta)
84 Khudiram Bose Central College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
85 Kidderpore College, Kidderpore
86 Kingston College of Science, Barasat
87 Kingston Law College, Barasat
88 Kishore Bharati Bhagini Nivedita(Co-ed) College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
89 Kolkata Teachers Training College, Kankinara
90 Kultali Dr. B.R. Ambedkar College, 24 Parganas South
91 Lady Brabourne College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
92 Lalbaba College, Howrah
93 Loreto College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
94 Magrahat College, 24 Parganas South
95 Mahadevananda Mahavidyalaya, Manirampur
96 Maharaja Manindra Chandra College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
97 Maharaja Shrish Chandra College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
98 Maharani Kasiswari College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
99 Maheshtrala College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
100 Mahitosh Nandi Mahavidyalaya, Jangipara
101 Maulana Azad College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
102 Metiabruz College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
103 Milli Al Ameen College for Girls, Kolkata (Calcutta)
104 Morning Star College, Barrackpore
105 Mrinalini Datta Mahavidyapith, Kolkata, Kolkata (Calcutta)
106 Muralidhar Girls College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
107 Naba Ballygunge Mahavidyalaya (Charu Chandra Evening College), Kolkata (Calcutta)
108 Naba Barrackpore Prafulla Chandra Mahavidyalaya, New Barrackpore
109 Nabagram Hiralal Paul College, Konnagar
110 Nahata Jogendranath Mandal Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Nahata
111 Nandalal Ghosh Basic Teacher College, Panpur
112 Narasingha Dutta College, Howrah
113 National Institute For The Mentally Handicapped, Kolkata (Calcutta)
114 Netaji Nagar College (Evening), Kolkata (Calcutta)
115 Netaji Nagar College for Women, Kolkata (Calcutta)
116 Netaji Satabarshiki Mahavidyalaya, Sahidbagh
117 New Alipore College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
118 Panchur College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
119 Panihati Mahavidyalaya, Sodepur
120 PARAMESWAR MAHAVIDYALAYA (B ED), Namkhana
121 Patharpratima Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
122 PN Das College, Shantinagar
123 Post Graduate Training College for Physical Education, Banipur
124 Prabhu Jagatbandhu College, Howrah
125 Prafulla Chandra College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
126 Prasanta Ch Mahalanobis Mahavidyalaya (Formerly Bon-Hooghly College of Commerce, Bon-Hooghly
127 Purash - Kanpur Haridas Nandi Mahavidyalaya, Kolkata (Calcutta)
128 Rabin Mukherjee College (Behala College of Commerce), Kolkata
129 Rabindra Shiksha Sammilani Law College, Mallikpur
130 Raidighi B Ed College, Raidighi
131 Raidighi College, 24 Parganas South
132 Raja Peary Mohan College, Uttarpara
133 Ramakrishna Mission Brahmananda College of Education, Rahara
134 Ramakrishna Mission Residential College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
135 RAMAKRISHNA MISSION SIKSHANA MANDIRA, Kolkata (Calcutta)
136 Ramakrishna Mission Vidyamandira, Kolkata (Calcutta)
137 Ramakrishna Sarada Mission Vivekananda Vidyabhavan, Kolkata (Calcutta)
138 Ramkrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, Rahara
139 Rammohan College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
140 Ramsaday College, Amta
141 Rani Birla Girls College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
142 Rishi Bankim Chandra College, Kanthalpara
143 Rishi Bankim Chandra College for Women, 24 Parganas North
144 Rishi Bankim Chandra Evening College, Naihati
145 RKM Training Institute for the teachers of the Visually Handicapped (Ramakrishna Mission Blind Boys Academy), 24 Parganas South
146 SA Jaipuria College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
147 Sadhan Chandra Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
148 Sagar Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
149 Saheed Anurup Chandra Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
150 Saheed Nurul Islam Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas North
151 Sammilani Mahavidyalaya, Kolkata (Calcutta)
152 SAMMILANI TEACHERS TRAINING COLLEGE, Barakhola
153 Sanskrit College (Government), Kolkata (Calcutta)
154 Sarada Ma Girls College (Self- financed), Barasat
155 Sarisa B.Ed College, 24 Parganas South
156 Sarojini Naidu College for Women, Kolkata (Calcutta)
157 Sarsuna College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
158 Satyapriya Roy College of Education, Kolkata (Calcutta)
159 Savitri Girls College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
160 Scottish Church College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
161 See Agrasain College (Self-financing), Liluah
162 Serampore College, Serampore
163 Serampore Girls, Serampore
164 Seth Soorajmull Jalan Girls College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
165 Shirakole Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
166 Shivanath Sastri College, Kolkata (SSC), Kolkata (Calcutta)
167 Shri Shikshayatan College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
168 Shyamaprasad Institute of Advanced Education, Kolkata (Calcutta)
169 Sir Gurudas Mahavidyalaya (Formerly Gurdas College of Commerce), Kolkata (Calcutta)
170 Sonarpur Mahavidyalaya, Kolkata (Calcutta)
171 South Calcutta Girls College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
172 South Calcutta Law College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
173 Sovarani Memorial College, Jagatballavpur
174 Sree Chaitanya Mahavidyalaya, Habra
175 Sri Chaitanya College, Prafullanagar
176 St Pauls Cathedral Mission College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
177 St Xaviers College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
178 STATE INSTITUTE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN, Kolkata (Calcutta)
179 Sukanta College, 24 Parganas South
180 SUNDARBAN ASHUTOSH B ED COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, Kakdwid
181 Sundarban Hazi Desarat College, 24 Parganas South
182 Sundarban Mahavidyalaya, 24 Parganas South
183 Surenderanath College For Women, Kolkata (Calcutta)
184 Surenderanath Evening College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
185 SURENDRA LAL DAS TEACHERS TRAINING COLLEGE, Ananda Nagar
186 Surendra Nath Law College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
187 Surendranath College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
188 Susil Kar College, Champahati
189 Swami Niswambalananda Girls, Bhadrakali
190 Swami Vivekananda College of Education, Barrackpore
191 Syamaprasad College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
192 Syampur Siddheswari Mahavidyalaya, Ajodhya
193 Taki Government College, Taki
194 Taradevi Harakhchand kankaria Jain College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
195 Udaynarayanpur Madhabilata Mahavidyalaya, Udaynarayanpur
196 Uluberia College, Uluberia
197 Umesh Chandra College, Kolkata, Kolkata
198 Victoria Institution, Kolkata (Calcutta)
199 Vidyanagar College, Charashyamdas
200 Vidyasagar College For Woman, Kolkata (Calcutta)
201 Vidyasagar College, Kolkata, Kolkata (Calcutta)
202 Vidyasagar Evening College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
203 Vidyasagar Mahavidyalaya, Masat
204 Viharilal College Of Home and Social Science, Kolkata (Calcutta)
205 Vijaygarh Jyotish Ray College, Kolkata (Calcutta)
206 Vivekananda College, East Udayrajpur
207 Vivekananda College for Woman, Kolkata (Calcutta)
208 Vivekananda College, Thakurpukur, Kolkata (Calcutta)
209 VIVEKANANDA RAMAKRISHNA MISSION B ED COLLEGE, Howrah
210 Womens Christian College, Kolkata (Calcutta)


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Bengal Institute of Science and Technology, Purulia
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