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West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata (Calcutta), West Bengal



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West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata (Calcutta), West Bengal
Address:NUJS Bhavan, 12 LB Block, Sector-III, Salt Lake City
Kolkata (Calcutta) (District Kolkata (Calcutta))
West Bengal, India
Pin Code : 700098


West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal is a University recognised by UGC.
West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal is situated in Kolkata (Calcutta) of West Bengal state (Province) in India. This data has been provided by www.punjabcolleges.com. Kolkata (Calcutta) comes under Kolkata (Calcutta) Tehsil, Kolkata (Calcutta) District.

Website of West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal is www.nujs.edu.



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Profile of West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences


Profile
The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences

The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, abbreviated to WBNUJS or NUJS is a specialised law university offering courses at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is situated in Salt Lake City of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. NUJS is one of the seven elite national law schools in India built on the five-year law degree model proposed and implemented by the Bar Council of India.

The University offers a five year integrated B.A./BSc. LLB (Hons.) degree programme at the undergraduate level and a Master of Laws (LLM) programme at the postgraduate level. Admission to the former programme is through the Common Law Admission Test, a highly competitive, nationwide common entrance examination, held jointly by the seven national law schools. NUJS also offers MPhil and PhD degrees.

History
History

The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences was established under the WBNUJS Act, 1999 (West Bengal Act IX of 1999) adopted by the West Bengal Legislature in July, 1999.The University was notified under Clause (f) of Section 2 of the UGC Act, 1956 in August 2004 and has been granted permanent affiliation by the Bar Council of India in July 2005.

The objectives of the University inter alia are to:

advance and disseminate learning and knowledge of law and legal processes and their role in national development
promote legal knowledge and to make law and the legal process efficient instruments of social development
develop in the student and research scholar a sense of responsibility to serve society in the field of law by developing skills with regard to advocacy, legal service, legislation, law reforms and the like
promote inter-disciplinary study of law in relation to management, technology, international cooperation and development

Academic Reputation
Academic Reputation

NUJS has a strong academic reputation. LexisNexis Halsbury s Law Monthly rates NUJS as a "Tier One" law school, jointly with the NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, and the National Law School of India University (NLSIU), Bangalore, and states that NUJS s "placement process is at par with the other two colleges in the top tier."

In 2008, in a ranking conducted jointly by the Wall Street Journal and Mint (a business newspaper of the Hindustan Times group), NUJS was rated as the third best law school in India (behind NLSIU and NALSAR), with the best "Pedagogic systems and process" amongst all law schools in the country.

Overall, the survey awarded NUJS a score of 607 out of 800, while NLSIU and NALSAR achieved scores of 621 and 609 respectively. However, the news magazine India Today ranked NUJS sixth in 2007 and 2008, below law schools that Halsbury s Law Monthly classifies as Tier Two and Tier Three institutions.

In 2006, India Today did not even feature NUJS (along with a few other national law schools) in their rankings. India Today s 2006 rankings was criticised as having "gaping flaws" and having caused a "wave of confusion" by lawentrance.com, a website popular amongst law school aspirants

The popular press has described NUJS as "one of the top three NLUs"

The Hindu : "one of the most prestigious institutions for legal education in the country"

The Telegraph : and a University whose students moot court achievements "put Kolkata on the world map in less than three years"

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Ethos
Ethos

Prof. N.R. Madhava Menon, the First-Vice Chancellor of the NUJSNUJS was established in consonance with the Prof Menon s concerns that a law school must act as a tool of "social engineering". Echoing such a belief, NUJS s purported goals inter alia are:

To advance and disseminate learning and knowledge of law and legal processes and their role in national development

To develop in the student and research scholar a sense of responsibility to serve society by developing skills in regard to advocacy, legal service, legislation, law reforms and the like.
To promote inter-disciplinary study of law in relation to management, technology, inter national cooperation and development.

According to Professor Mahendra P Singh, the University s incumbent Vice Chancellor, it is NUJS s "endeavour to teach students the value of social justice so that they can help the weaker sections of society."[10]. It is undeniable that most academicians in NUJS espouse socialist and/or left-wing beliefs, although students are given full freedom and sometimes even encouraged to adopt contrary positions. In the past, the University has had a Marxist scholar, Professor B S Chimni, as its Vice Chancellor. However, the overwhelming majority of students have so far opted for lucrative jobs in the corporate sector and shunned opportunities to work as "social engineers". Elective subjects linked to business and commerce (e.g. Corporate Finance and Competition Law) typically have large numbers of students opting for them, while electives linked to social concerns and human rights (e.g. Gender and Law, Culture and Pluralism) have few takers, sometimes none. In an article written for the The Hindu, Dr Ajay Gudavarthy, a former teacher at NUJS and NLSIU, criticised both these institutions as being "tailored for the corporates" and argued that they could end up as "professional institutions without social relevance."

Campus
Campuses

Salt Lake Campus :

Dr. Ambedkar Bhavan (University Academic Block)NUJS s main campus is located on a prime five-acre plot in Salt Lake City, overseeing the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass. The National Insitute of Fashion Technology and the College of Leather Technology border the Campus. The Hyatt Regency and the ITC Sheraton Sonar Bangla, two of Kolkata s largest luxury hotels are situated close to the Campus. The Salt Lake Campus was designed by the architectural firm Ghosh,Bose and Associates, which also designed the Hyatt Regency. Like the Hyatt Regency, NUJS central building is an example of the Modernist school of architecture, characterised by minimalist design and open spaces. The front facade has a large, standalone, Neo-Doric style column that also acts as a support (this has been nicknamed by students as the "Pillar of Justice").

Other prominent landmarks within walking distance from the campus include the Yuva Bharati Krirangan (one of the world s largest football stadiums), the Bengal Tennis Academy, the multiplex 89 Cinemas, the Nicco Super Bowl bowling alley, the Stadel resort hotel, Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, AMRI Hospital, the Abcos Food Plaza and the supermarkets Charnock City and Food Bazaar. The Campus is also a fifteen minutes drive away from Kolkata s famous Park Street, a location that has been at the heart of the city s nightlife since the days of the British Raj and whose restaurants have been credited with having launched some of India s earliest jazz and rock musicians. Tangra, South Asia s only Chinatown, is also situated a few minutes drive away from the Campus, and its eateries are a popular haunt amongst students.

The Salt Lake Campus consists of an academic block and three residential blocks. The latter comprises two separate, seven-storied halls of residence for girls and boys and a double-storied faculty accommodation house-cum-guest house. The University s academic block, christened after B.R. Ambedkar, is a four-storied octagonal structure that opens inwardly to a lawn. The building houses Class rooms, a library and reading room, two modern conference halls, various offices and an


The book section of the NUJS Libraryauditorium. The NUJS Library houses over 20,000 titles and, owing largely to a donation from the estate of the late Justice Durga Das Basu, contains many rare books of historical importance. The reading room is equipped computers linked to major Indian and international onlne legal databases. In addition to the main library, each School of the University has its own specialised library.

NUJS also holds institutional memberships with leading libraries in the cities such as the British Council Library and the American Information Resource Center. Besides this, law students from other universities are encouraged to use the library for research and study.

Admission to the hostels is conducted simultaneously with admission to the University. Although most students reside in the hostels for the entire duration of their course, some local residents choose live off campus in their homes. The hostels provide reasonable amenities to the students and has a mess serving vegetarian and non-vegetarian meals. Washrooms are modern and hostel rooms are equipped with round-the-clock internet access.


The University Halls of ResidenceThe hostels have their own rules of discipline, which are primarily administered by the Wardens in association with students. Self-governance is encouraged for which powers are delegated to select student representatives. The hostel mess is managed by a Mess Committee managed by the residents themselves. There is a doctor available for consultation, who visits the hostel regularly. This apart, the University organizes medical help whenever needed through tie-ups with hospitals located in the Salt Lake area. The Corporation Bank, a public sector undertaking, has opened a branch inside the campus and offers banking facilities, including an ATM facility.

The Salt Lake Campus has limited sports facilities and the University authorities have attempted to compensate for this by forging a tie-up with the Sports Authority of India, whose sports complex is located a few metres away from the University.


Rajarhat Campus:


NUJS s Rajarhat Campus is yet to be operationalised by the University authorities. No significant construction activity has been undertaken and the land presently lies vacant. Amongst the proposals that have been put forward to the auhorities for the development of the Rajarhat Campus has been the construction of a dedicated sports complex.

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Academic Schools and Research Centres
Academic Schools & Research Centres :

NUJS is organised into a number of Schools of study, each independent in conception and operation, yet integrated through programmes of teaching, research and extension activities. These schools of study include:

The School of Criminal Justice and Administration
The School of Economic and Business Laws
The School of Legal Practice and Development
The School of Private Laws and Comparative Jurisprudence
The School of Public Law and Governance
The School of Social Sciences
The School of Technology, Law and Development
The Research Centres established at the University are:

The Centre for Gender and Law.
The Centre for Human Rights and Citizenship Studies
The Centre for WTO Law
The Schools and the Centres undertake regular projects which are funded by the Government of India, the Department of Economic Affairs, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests, the Ministry of Home Affairs,the United Nations Development Programme and the Ford Foundation, among others.

The University publishes its own peer reviewed law journals, the NUJS Law Review and the Indian Juridical Review.


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Faculty
Faculty

Presently, the University s faculty is a mix of young and experienced scholars, hailing from diverse backgrounds. The experienced faculty members include former Supreme Court of India judge, Justice Ruma Pal (currently the Ford Foundation Professor of human rights). The former Governor of Mizoram and CBI director Dr. A.P.Mukherjee taught criminal law subjects. A number of faculty members have studied in prestigious universities abroad. The faculty includes two Oxonians, a Fulbright scholar and three Chevening Scholars. Lecturers educated in India are alumni of institutions such as NLSIU, Jawaharlal Nehru University and, in a recent trend, NUJS itself.

In addition to lectures by permanent faculty members, the University regularly organises lectures and interactive seminars attended by eminent jurists, lawyers and academicians from India and abroad. Visitors who have delivered lectures and interacted with students include Lord Robin Auld, Sir Igor Judge, Justice Zakaria Yacoob from the Constitutional Court of South Africa, Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer, Justice M.N. Venkatachaliah , Upendra Baxi, Ram Jethmalani, Indira Jaising, Vandana Shiva, Bibek Debroy, Jayati Ghosh and Manoranjan Mohanty.

NUJS s locational accessibility has made it possible for professors from Kolkata s other reputed institutions to visit the campus and take classes. Professors from institutions such as the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, the Indian Statistical Institute, the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Presidency College, Kolkata, St. Xavier s College, Calcutta and Jadavpur University often visit NUJS.

Legal Aid
Legal Aid Society

Members of Legal Aid Society assisted by teachers offering free legal help at Midnapore.Another innovative idea of Prof. Menon, the Legal Aid Society was set up in 2000 with the aim of providing basic legal education, awareness and counseling. This also provides students practical training and an opportunity to gain field experience in law. The Legal Aid Society has undertaken the following categories of activities:

Legal Aid Clinic & Counseling - The Legal Aid Clinic has been set up as a permanent body to provide free legal advice and resolution of disputes without long drawn and expensive litigation. This is done by providing legal and para-legal assistance. The clinic is presided over by the Faculty Advisor, Shri N.Konar, a former judge. Assistance is also provided by other former Judges in the faculty. The Clinic has been functional since 9th November, 2002 and has tendered advise to several cases.
Human Rights and Public Education - for empowering people through legal education and instilling in them consciousness about their rights and duties. This is done through field visits in semi-urban and rural areas as well as publicized seminars and workshops within the university itself.
Youth for Social Justice - A social awareness program that targets young people with the objective of ingraining in impressionable minds a sense of social justice.
Law Enforcement Assistance - This subcommittee works with law enforcement authorities such as the police, Government, pollution control board, for providing an interface to people in order to promote legal awareness and law-enforcement.

Members of Legal Aid Society, NUJS performing a street play to provide legal education to rural audiences.Para Legal Services and Training - The purpose of this activity is to build relationships with other agencies that work in the field such as NGOs, to facilitate exchange of information. The Society seeks to provide training and services in the form of documental consultancy and research to these agencies.
Public Interest Advocacy Support services - In the form of documentation, obtaining empirical data and other allied research are to be provided for public advocacy of popular concerns and Public interest Litigations.
Lok Adalat and ADR assistance - As part of its goal to encourage alternate dispute resolution, the Legal Aid Society organizes Lok Adalats in association with the W.B. Legal Aid Authority. Till date one Lok Adalat, specially for women was held in November 2003.
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Alumni
Alumni

The first batch of graduates from NUJSA large number of graduates of NUJS have been recruited by premier law firms of India and abroad by way of a student run campus recruitment process. Recruitment for the batch graduating in 2008 marked the advent of international law firms including Magic Circle firms who have picked up eight students for prestigious training contracts at Clifford Chance, LLP, Allen & Overy,LLP, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, LLP, Herbert Smith, LLP and SJ Berwin, LLP. The domestic law firms which have recruited students from NUJS include Luthra & Luthra Law Offices, Amarchand Mangaldas, AZB & Partners, Trilegal, Economic Law Practice, Wadia Ghandy & Co. and many others. Among companies, ICICI Bank, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Sons, Infosys, Satyam, ITC and Dr. Reddy s Laboratories and many more were the major names which have recruited from campus. The Securities and Exchange Board of India(SEBI), the capital markets regulator in India have also recruited students from NUJS. Some graduates, albeit a minuscule number, pursue careers in litigation by joining the chambers of Senior Advocates in the Supreme Court of India or various High Courts & Trial Courts. Some graduates have also embarked on a career in law teaching. NUJS graduates have been recruited by the School of Law, Singapore Management University, NLS and NUJS itself as assistant professors and lecturers.

However, some graduates prefer not to sit for the recruitment process. Instead, they decide to pursue higher education at the some of the premier universities abroad, such as Harvard Law School, Oxford University, Cambridge University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Stanford Law School, London School of Economics, New York University School of Law, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, UC Berkeley, Tulane University etc. Graduates have received some of the most prestigious scholarships at these premier universities abroad, including the Felix Scholarship to Oxford University, the Vanderbilt Scholarship (NYU), Shell Centenary Scholarship(Oxford), the J.N. Tata Endowment Scholarship, the Chevening scholarship, and even the uber prestigious Rhodes scholarship

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Achievements
Achievements
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2005 Champions of Stetson International Environmental Law Moot Court Competition from WBNUJS, Kolkata with Professor Royal C. GardnerStudents NUJS has won numerous encomiums at national and international Moot Court competitions. In 2003, NUJS became the only Indian and second Asian college to win the the Willem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot, held at Vienna.[12] In 2005, the University Moot team won the Willem C. Vis (East) International Commercial Arbitration Moot, which is held each year in Hong Kong.[13] The NUJS Moot teams have been regularly been reaching the advanced rounds of the competition, from its debut in 2003[citation needed]. In 2005, NUJS also emerged as winners at the Stetson International Environmental Law Moot Court Competition at Stetson University Law School in Gulfport, Florida, USA[14]. Over the years, the NUJS team has also performed exceedingly well at the Phillip C. Jessup International Law Moot at Washington D.C. In fact in 2004-05, the NUJS team won the Jessup (North Zone) National Rounds and participated at the International Rounds at Washington D.C., where they proceeded to the advanced rounds .

Besides the above, the University moot team has been a semi-finalist at the Asia Pacific Round of the Manfred Lachs International Space Law Moot at Sydney, Australia. In the last two editions of the biennial Commonwealth Moot Court competition, NUJS has won the national rounds on both occasions, thereby, earning a chance to represent India at the International rounds. They have been finalists and semifinalists at the International Rounds. In 2006, NUJS was selected as one of the teams to represent India at the ELSA WTO Moot Court at Geneva, Switzerland and were semi-finalists in the oral rounds of the same.

Over the years, the University Team has also won accolades at the Bar Council of India Moot, Raj Anand Intellectual Property Moot, M.M. Singhvi - Bar Council of India Moot at NLU Jodhpur, K.L.A. Moot, and several other national moot court competitions.

NUJS also participates in a number of parliamentary debates at the international level, including the World Universities Debating Championship (Worlds), All Asian Debating Championship (Asians), Oxford IV, Cambridge IV, etc. The University team has won a number of national debates, made the break at the Asians and at the Worlds (ESL category).

The students of NUJS also actively participate in a number of other extracurricular activities like sports & dramatics.

Alumni
Alumni

The first batch of graduates from NUJSA large number of graduates of NUJS have been recruited by premier law firms of India and abroad by way of a student run campus recruitment process. Recruitment for the batch graduating in 2008 marked the advent of international law firms including Magic Circle firms who have picked up eight students for prestigious training contracts at Clifford Chance, LLP, Allen & Overy,LLP, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, LLP, Herbert Smith, LLP and SJ Berwin, LLP. The domestic law firms which have recruited students from NUJS include Luthra & Luthra Law Offices, Amarchand Mangaldas, AZB & Partners, Trilegal, Economic Law Practice, Wadia Ghandy & Co. and many others. Among companies, ICICI Bank, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Sons, Infosys, Satyam, ITC and Dr. Reddy s Laboratories and many more were the major names which have recruited from campus. The Securities and Exchange Board of India(SEBI), the capital markets regulator in India have also recruited students from NUJS. Some graduates, albeit a minuscule number, pursue careers in litigation by joining the chambers of Senior Advocates in the Supreme Court of India or various High Courts & Trial Courts. Some graduates have also embarked on a career in law teaching. NUJS graduates have been recruited by the School of Law, Singapore Management University, NLS and NUJS itself as assistant professors and lecturers.

However, some graduates prefer not to sit for the recruitment process. Instead, they decide to pursue higher education at the some of the premier universities abroad, such as Harvard Law School, Oxford University, Cambridge University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Stanford Law School, London School of Economics, New York University School of Law, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, UC Berkeley, Tulane University etc. Graduates have received some of the most prestigious scholarships at these premier universities abroad, including the Felix Scholarship to Oxford University, the Vanderbilt Scholarship (NYU), Shell Centenary Scholarship(Oxford), the J.N. Tata Endowment Scholarship, the Chevening scholarship, and even the uber prestigious Rhodes scholarship

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Achievements
Achievements
------------

2005 Champions of Stetson International Environmental Law Moot Court Competition from WBNUJS, Kolkata with Professor Royal C. GardnerStudents NUJS has won numerous encomiums at national and international Moot Court competitions. In 2003, NUJS became the only Indian and second Asian college to win the the Willem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot, held at Vienna.[12] In 2005, the University Moot team won the Willem C. Vis (East) International Commercial Arbitration Moot, which is held each year in Hong Kong.[13] The NUJS Moot teams have been regularly been reaching the advanced rounds of the competition, from its debut in 2003[citation needed]. In 2005, NUJS also emerged as winners at the Stetson International Environmental Law Moot Court Competition at Stetson University Law School in Gulfport, Florida, USA[14]. Over the years, the NUJS team has also performed exceedingly well at the Phillip C. Jessup International Law Moot at Washington D.C. In fact in 2004-05, the NUJS team won the Jessup (North Zone) National Rounds and participated at the International Rounds at Washington D.C., where they proceeded to the advanced rounds .

Besides the above, the University moot team has been a semi-finalist at the Asia Pacific Round of the Manfred Lachs International Space Law Moot at Sydney, Australia. In the last two editions of the biennial Commonwealth Moot Court competition, NUJS has won the national rounds on both occasions, thereby, earning a chance to represent India at the International rounds. They have been finalists and semifinalists at the International Rounds. In 2006, NUJS was selected as one of the teams to represent India at the ELSA WTO Moot Court at Geneva, Switzerland and were semi-finalists in the oral rounds of the same.

Over the years, the University Team has also won accolades at the Bar Council of India Moot, Raj Anand Intellectual Property Moot, M.M. Singhvi - Bar Council of India Moot at NLU Jodhpur, K.L.A. Moot, and several other national moot court competitions.

NUJS also participates in a number of parliamentary debates at the international level, including the World Universities Debating Championship (Worlds), All Asian Debating Championship (Asians), Oxford IV, Cambridge IV, etc. The University team has won a number of national debates, made the break at the Asians and at the Worlds (ESL category).

The students of NUJS also actively participate in a number of other extracurricular activities like sports & dramatics.


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Student Juridical Association
Student Juridical Association
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The student body of the University is known as the Student Juridical Association (SJA). The SJA has an elected President and Vice President and two administrative office bearers, the Administrative Secretary and the Treasurer. The SJA has an Executive Council which is constituted by representatives from the various Student Committees of the SJA and an elected Class Representative from each of the five batches of students. The Student Committees of the SJA are committees for encouraging, organising and playing an administrative role in extracurricular activities within the student body. Such committees include the Moot Court Society, Cultural Committee, Literary and Debating Society, Sports Committee, etc.

The SJA publishes a student-run law journal, the Juridical Review, the Student Editors of which are guided by a Faculty Advisor and an Editorial Advisory Board.


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Student Activities
Student Activities
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The students of NUJS have excelled in almost every field. They have proven their mettle in various areas such as Moot Courts, Debates, and Essay Writing. Our students also have publications in various international and national publications and journals and have participated in a plethora of seminars.

Moot Courts
Debates
Essay Writing
Publications
Seminars

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Student Organisations
Student Organisations
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The Student Juridical Association (SJA) is the organization of students to promote co-curricular and extra-curricular activities. Certain co-curricular programmes are required activities for all students for which academic credits are assigned. Non-participation will entail negative marking and therefore students are advised in their own interest to make the best use of facilities offered. The nature and variety of co-curricular programmes depend on the interest and initiated of students for which Faculty Advisors are assigned in appropriate cases.

At NUJS, students form an integral part of the day to day running of the University. For this purpose, various societies have been created for the organization of events and managing of students activities. The societies, can broadly be categorized as societies that are a part of the Student Juridical Association and societies that are not.

The SJA Societies are:

Moot Court Society
Library Committee
Literary and Debating Society
Cultural Committee
Magazine Committee
Cyber Committee
Sports Committee
Nature Committee
Contemporary Affairs Society
The Non-SJA Societies are:

Films Society
Constitutional Law Society
Society for International Law and Practice
Corporate and Fiscal Laws Society
Intellectual Property and Technology Laws Society
Society for Global Democracy

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Seminars
REPORT ON PANEL DISCUSSION ON WTO
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30TH JANUARY, 2008.
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NEGOTIATING DYNAMICS IN THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


Developing countries constitute three-fourths of the World Trade Organization (WTO) membership and theoretically can influence the agenda and outcome of trade negotiations. However, this has not been the case always since most developing countries’ economies are largely dependant on the developed world and thus, this brings into play complex negotiating dynamics in the present multilateral framework. India was amongst the 23 countries, who on 1st January 1948, signed one of the earliest multilateral agreements on trade- the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and has since then witnessed the changes in the negotiating dynamics over time.

It is in this light, with the aim of increasing awareness and knowledge of these negotiating dynamics and India’s role therein, within the NUJS student community, the Centre for Studies on World Trade Organization (WTO) in conjunction with the Society for International Trade and Competition, WB National University of Juridical Sciences (NUJS) organized a Panel Discussion on the ‘Negotiating Dynamics in the World Trade Organization and Developing Countries’ on 30 January 2008. The discussion was attended by the faculty and students of the University and was presided over by Professor M.P. Singh, Vice Chancellor, NUJS. The esteemed Panellists to grace the Discussion were:
· Mr. Sumanto Choudhary- Former Counsellor, Permanent Mission of India to the WTO in Geneva.
· Professor Biswajit Dhar- Head of the Centre for WTO Studies, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi.
· Mr. S.N. Menon- Former Commerce Secretary of India

After a brief Opening Address by Professor M.P.Singh and an Introduction by Mr. Prabhash Ranjan, Lecturer NUJS, each of the Panellists, in turn addressed the students and the faculty. Mr. Sumanto Choudhary set the ball rolling by comprehensively dealing with the changes in negotiating dynamics since the GATT to the ongoing Doha Development Round. He was followed by Professor Biswajit Dhar who dealt with specific issues of negotiations on the Agreement on Agriculture and the formation and role of the G-20 within WTO negotiations. Mr. Menon raised the larger issue related to the role that trade can play to boost development. Amongst other things, he elucidated on the importance of interpersonal relations between the negotiators of different countries within WTO negotiations for the success of negotiations. He gave the example of the formation of G-20 (a coalition of about 20 developing countries formed during the Cancun ministerial conference of the WTO to stop the onslaught of the United States and European Commission on agriculture), which was formed in a very short span of time, to illustrate the significance of interpersonal relations between negotiators of different countries. The address by the three panellists was followed by an interactive session where students got the opportunity to ask questions and raise other relevant issues.

A summary of the main issues deliberated upon during the course of the discussion is provided below.

The discussions during the panel discussion divided the multilateral trade negotiations as per the following eras:
(A) GATT ERA: (1947-1994) – This era focussed exclusively on trade in goods. The series of rounds of negotiations in this era concentrated only on reduction of industrial tariffs. The issue of agricultural tariffs and trade in agriculture were kept completely out of the loop. Though with the introduction of GATT, some of the issues concerning developing countries were addressed, however, GATT was still a “Rich Man’s Club” and developing countries either did not participate at all or at best participated only minimally in the negotiations. The role of developing countries in this era was restricted to demanding the introduction of the enabling clause and the General System of Preferences. GATT has therefore been held to be an “imperfect articulation of the interests of developing countries”.
(B) THE URUGUAY ROUND, LAUNCH OF THE WTO AND TILL THE START OF THE DOHA ROUND – This era began with the start of the Uruguay Round of negotiations (which resulted in the formation of the WTO Agreement) and continued till the beginning of the Doha Round of negotiations. The Uruguay Round essentially tried to level the playing field among countries at different levels of development and was different from the GATT era in the following respects:
· Negotiations on services and intellectual property led to their inclusion in the WTO Agreement. However, it must be noted that many developing countries did not participate in the first four years of such negotiations. Many developing countries were of the view that that services and Intellectual Property do not essentially come within trade in goods and hence should not be part of the multilateral trade negotiations.
· The Dispute Settlement Mechanism underwent major changes and was made more effective than its predecessor by providing for an Appellate Body (AB) and changing the positive consensus rule to negative consensus in matters of adopting the panel reports.
· Since a shift took place from GATT which was merely an agreement to the WTO which is an organisation, the organisational structure too underwent changes and became more hierarchised.
· With respect to negotiating dynamics, the Uruguay Round was more complex than the GATT Rounds. The complexities arose out of heterogeneity of interests both between developed and developing countries and also between different developing countries, number of members and levels of development started playing a big role in negotiations.
· It was in this era that agriculture and negotiations on agricultural tariffs and subsidies got mainstreamed in the multilateral trading regime and have since then been one of the most important and contentious issue in the multilateral trade negotiations. This, thus, led to the inclusion of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) within the WTO framework. One of the objectives of the AoA was to provide a comprehensive mandate to address distortions in the agricultural market, but it is a matter of debate whether this objective has been achieved.
Another important aspect of the Uruguay round was that most developing countries did not end up taking too many substantial commitments apart from TRIPs. This was because the other commitments were essentially in the form of tariff bindings and most developing countries had chosen to bind tariff rates much above their actual applied rates. Since, there existed a gap between bound and applied tariffs, no significant changes were required in the domestic policy of developing countries post negotiations.
(C) DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA (DDA): - In the run up to the Doha round, there existed a sharp divide between the developed and the developing countries on the four Singapore Issues of investment protection, competition policy, transparency in government procurement and trade facilitation, which almost led to the derailment of the Doha Round. India had taken a strong stand against the inclusion of the Singapore Issues and while other developing countries dissipated overtime, India stuck to her position and insisted on inclusion of the “Positive Explicit Consensus” clause within the WTO negotiations in order to undertake negotiations on the Singapore issues.
This round also marked another step forward for developing countries since ‘Development’ was made an explicit agenda during the negotiations. Although it is important to note that the official name of the set of agreements reached by countries at Doha is the ‘Doha Work Programme’ and not the Doha Development Agenda. However, later attempts were made by the US to backtrack from the development objective by stating that Doha round should aim at ‘market access’. Therefore, the use of this term has been criticised as being a mere good use of the English language. The Doha Round has also led to a greater South-South cooperation as is witnessed by the formation of the G20, thus adding new dimensions to international negotiations.
FUTURE OF THE DDA: IS THE DDA DEAD
On this subject, there was a broad consensus amongst the panellists that the Doha Round of negotiations were far from over inspite of the negotiations having been stalled for sometime now. Furthermore, it was also opined that considering the political realities of international negotiations, the outcome of the US Presidential elections would have an impact on the future direction that these negotiations would take. It was also felt that the continuation of the round would benefit both the developed and the developing countries by bringing in better clarity of rules.

FUTURE OF COMPETITION, INVESTMENT AND OTHER SOCIAL ISSUES WITHIN THE WTO NEGOTIATIONS: -
With the stalling of the DDA, there is now a possibility that issues such as labour and environment may be introduced within the negotiating agenda. However with respect to competition policy and investment protection, the panellists were positive that these issues would not re-enter the Doha Round. Such issues may nonetheless be introduced at a later stage considering that some developing countries are themselves beginning to feel the need for protecting the interests of their investors.

JUDICIAL ACTIVISM OF DSU AND EFFECT ON NEGOTIATIONS: -
It was felt that over time, the functioning of the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) has changed significantly since: -
· The Dispute Settlement Mechanism has seen the participation of several new countries, many as third parties, and
· The change in the functioning of the Appellate Body has institutionalised judicial activism and it is today being said that the Appellate Body has encroached into the domain of the negotiators.
These instances of judicial activism have today been incorporated in toto in negotiation proposals. They are thus being used as tools in such negotiations, for instance, the jurisprudence on AoA and the Anti Dumping Agreement. It is therefore feared that if this continues, then countries may prefer to go in for relatively cheaper DSB proceedings which achieve the same result as costly negotiations. Thus, international negotiations may lose their significance.
FORMATION OF G20 AND THE ROLE OF INDIA: -
The formation of the G20 can be traced back to the Cancun Ministerial Conference where the US and the EU got together a text on agriculture and resisted any lowering of the subsidies to their domestic farmers. This led to a major flashpoint between the developed and the developing nations and resulted, almost overnight, in the birth of the G20 alliance. It saw the coming together of two diametrically opposite interests when India (which has a defensive agricultural policy) allied with Brazil (a major agricultural exporter with an aggressive agricultural policy). The G-20 alliance has stood the test of time inspite of various attempts of the developed world to exploit the differences existing within the alliance. This unity has been possible mainly because of the leadership of India and Brazil who realized the importance of maintaining the advantage of numbers despite differences. The benefit of such unity can be witnessed in the agriculture and services negotiations.
Apart from the G-20 alliance, several other groupings of the developing countries can also be seen today. For example- the G-33 (coordinated by Indonesia), SVEs (Small and Vulnerable Economies), Newly Acceded Countries etc. Although a broad homogeneity of interest exists amongst the developing countries, it is feared that with the emergence of such factions, the overall strength of the developing countries may get adversely affected.

Thus, overtime the position of the developing countries within WTO negotiations has changed from merely requesting concessions to now placing aggressive demands.

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Semanar II
International Conference on Law, Pluralism and Cultural Diversity from 11-13 March 2008
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Concept Note for Cultural Diversity Conference

The WB National University of Juridical Sciences in association with University of Leipzig and other German scholars is organising a three day international conference on Law, Pluralism and Cultural Diversity from 11-13 March 2008. The venue of the conference is the Academic Block of the University.

Cultural pluralism is a reality that the nation-building process in India had to administer. This pluralism practiced and experienced in everyday living can help shape India and its civil society as a role model for all those political communities and international actors being committed to the preservation of cultural diversity. One of the main features of the pluralist aspect of any culture is to understand clearly the role that law plays. This role needs to be understood by looking at the law and society, culture and rights, universalism and cultural relativism debates in a new light. Pluralism today is an issue to reckon with both intra-state as well as inter-state.

This intercultural legal discussion can be inspired by a bifocal perspective: the global and the inter-constitutional one. The latter is based on the method of a sophisticated comparison of constitutions and analysis of all those constitutional norms which have the purpose to preserve the diversity. Eurocentric legal theories claim universal validity and it is important to provide alternative Eastern values that may also claim universal recognition. If globalization means hybridization in locality-coloured and culture-specific forms worldwide, rather than uniformising homogenization, lawyers need to be better equipped to understand the manifold pluralities within and between legal systems as complex entities. According to Menski, our legal life is constituted by the intersection of different legal orders, i.e. by interlegality. This is the phenomenological counterpart of legal pluralism, and a key concept in a post-modern conception of law. Applying law into different circumstances must necessarily take into account soci0-cultural elements. Challenging notions of legal positivism, a legal pluralist approach to the study of all branches of law is essential. It is equally important to emphasize that India had a legal pluralist procedure prior to the coming of colonialism and the presence of customary laws as well as personal laws in independent India would indicate the continuation of pluralism within an otherwise legal centralist paradigm.

A Law and Cultural Diversity Conference is definitely an interesting and relevant academic exercise. There needs to be an interaction of the legal academia and the wider social science academia to discuss the complexities of globalization, plurality, identity-politics, and the response of laws in this cultural context. It is all the more timely because it is necessary to demystify myths that commercial laws or intellectual property laws are culture-neutral. This Conference intends to discuss constitutional law, business laws, intellectual property law regime, criminal laws, and also procedures of alternative dispute resolution keeping legal pluralism as its theoretical point of departure. A German-Indian dialogue on these issues would be intellectually stimulating and generate a process of knowledge creation.
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Library
Library
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The University Central Library occupies a central location commanding a spectacular view of the quadrangle and hostels. The reading room is spread over 758 sq. metres of floorspace, providing 400 seats. As of 2006 the Library has a collection of more than 10000 books and more than 5000 volumes of bound periodicals as well a sizeable collection of electronic materials in CD-ROMs and legal databases providing online access via major legal platforms including SCC, Grand Jurix, and Manupatra online. As an integral component of the academic programs, the Library supports the University s teaching and research. From the humble initiatives on 1 June, 2000, there has been rapid growth in the collection at par with the giant strides the university took in the six years of its existence.

Currently the library subscribes to 124 journals including top-notch international publications - Journal of World Trade, American Journal of International Law, International Legal Materials, Economist & Time to name a few.The library archives hold the complete set of All England Law Reports from 1558 to date, All India Reports 1920 onwards, Fleet Street Reports, US Supreme Court Reports and other equally noteworthy collections. It has also been enriched by donations from renowned personalities and organizations, the most significant being the invaluable manuscripts and commentary on the Constitution of India of LateJustice Durgadas Basu.

In addition to the central library, there are specialized collections held at the various schools and Centres of studies open to access by students. The library holds institutional membership with the British Council and the American Information Resource Center, enabling students to access their collections and databases. Tertiary facilities like photocopying, printing and internet facilities are available within the library

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Accomodation
A range of accommodation facilities is available in and around Kolkata (calcutta). For Full details visit:
http://www.barnalatravels.com/citysearch/Kolkata (calcutta)/page/1/
and have a hotel of your choice.
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About Us
The WB National University of Juridical Sciences (NUJS) is one of the premiere national law schools of India. It has constantly been ranked as one of the top law schools of India. NUJS, in its short existence, of about a decade or so has produced outstanding lawyers and legal scholarship. NUJS has a very rich faculty, with diverse backgrounds, drawn from almost all corners of India. NUJS faculty has been trained in top universities in India and abroad and has been constantly involved in delivering quality teaching and research. The faculty members of NUJS have made a name for themselves, in their respective fields, by publishing research in reputed journals in India and abroad and with renowned publishing houses and are playing a key role in pushing the frontiers of legal knowledge and expertise. NUJS has also attracted leading academicians, as visiting faculties, from top universities such as University of Sydney, University of London, National University of Singapore, Freiburg University and others.

Students that have passed out from NUJS are working in top law firms in India and abroad, some are practicing in courts and some have entered the field of legal academics and are teaching in India and abroad. Many of the NUJS students have been awarded prestigious scholarships such as Rhodes, Felix and Chevening for higher studies in the United Kingdom and also in the United States and other leading universities.

NUJS under the inspiring leadership of its Vice Chancellor, Professor M P Singh, one of the most respected and renowned legal scholars of India, is striving to become a centre of excellence. It is keen to attract talented faculties and students and further enrich its academic environment for cutting edge teaching and research.

Stuff



Images / newspaper cuttings related to West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences

NUJS drafts policy to deal with sexual harassment of interns (West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences)
News: 6th March, 2014
NUJS drafts policy to deal with sexual harassment of interns
NUJS guidelines to deal with harassment (West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences)
News: 5th March, 2014
NUJS guidelines to deal with harassment

NUJS staff ups ante against colleague (News)
On the anvil at NUJS, Comprehensive sexual harassment policy (News)
Harassment, Faculty exit, admin failure, NUJS VC faces campus anger (News)
NUJS VC faces campus anger (News)
Justice Ganguly resigns as NUJS guest lectuer (News)
NUJS asst registrar held on charges of molestation (News)
NUJS official arrested for harassing woman employee (News)
WBNUJS dissociates itself from Ganguly (News)
NUJS dissociates itself (News)
Bengal Varsity dissociates itself from Ganguly (News)
NUJS asstt registrar arrested on charges of molestation (News)
NUJS Faculty against ties with Ganguly (News)
Former judge still on KU rolls (News)
Prof asks Univ to probe charges against SC judge (News)
VC says intern was responsible, good natured (News)
HC denies bail to Asstt Registrar (News)
Librarian and Asstt Professor etc (Job Vacancy)
Post Graduate Diploma in Business Law (Admission Notice)
Proffessor and Assistant Proffessor (Job Vacancy)
Registrar professors and Assistant Professors (Job Vacancy)

Media coverage of West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata (Calcutta) West Bengal, West Bengal

City girl tops law entrance test

GUWAHATI, May 29 – Padmini Baruah of Assam secured the first position in the all-India Common Law Admission Test (CLAT), 2011 held in 18 centres across the country in which more than 24,000 students appeared.

Incidentally, Padmini is the first person from eastern India to top the CLAT. She scored 173 out of 200 marks.
Padmini is the daughter of Bijoy Kumar Baruah and Sita Baruah, both engineers by profession and residents of Gitanagar, Guwahati.

The CLAT is an all-India entrance examination conducted by 11 national Law universities by rotation for admissions to their undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes. The CLAT, 2011 was conducted by the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata.

This year around 1,100 seats in the 11 top law institutes of the country will be filled up on the basis of the CLAT results. There was an increase in the number of students appearing for the CLAT examination this year.

Padmini, who has a distinguished academic career, passed the CBSE Class X examination from the DPS, Digboi in 2009 and the CBSE Class XII examination from the DPS, Guwahati in Humanities this year.

An accomplished debator, Padminis interests include quizzing, drama and playing the keyboard. She was third in the Brain Jam quiz last year.

Padmini now plans to join the National Law School of India University, Bangalore.

Colleges affiliated with this University

Total number of colleges affiliated with this University = 0


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All India Federation of University and College Teachers Organisations (AIFUCTO), Kolkata (Calcutta)

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